Loratadine Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings – Dosing #loratadine #oral,


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Loratadine Tablet,Disintegrating

Uses

Loratadine does not prevent hives or prevent/treat a serious allergic reaction (e.g. anaphylaxis ). Therefore, if your doctor has prescribed epinephrine to treat allergic reactions, always carry your epinephrine injector with you. Do not use loratadine in place of your epinephrine.

If you are self-treating with this medication, it is important to read the manufacturer’s package instructions carefully so you know when to consult your doctor or pharmacist. (See also Precautions section.)

Do not use this medication in children younger than 6 years unless directed by the doctor.

How to use Loratadine Tablet,Disintegrating

If you are using the over-the-counter product to self-treat, read all the directions on the product package before taking this medication. If your doctor has prescribed this medication, follow your doctor’s directions and the instructions on your prescription label. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist .

Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor or the product package, usually once or twice a day. Remove the tablet from its foil pack immediately before taking and place the tablet on the tongue. It will dissolve quickly. You may swallow the dissolved medication with or without water. Dosage is based on your age, condition, and response to treatment. Do not increase your dose or take this drug more often than directed. Do not take more of this medication than recommended for your age.

Tell your doctor if your allergy symptoms do not improve after 3 days of treatment or if your hives last more than 6 weeks. Seek immediate medical attention if your condition worsens or you think you have a serious medical problem (e.g. very serious allergic reaction /anaphylaxis ).

Side Effects

This drug usually has no side effects. If you have any unusual effects, contact your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction. including: rash. itching /swelling (especially of the face/tongue /throat), severe dizziness. trouble breathing .

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Precautions

Before taking loratadine. tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to desloratadine; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication. tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history. Do not self-treat with this medication without consulting your doctor first if you have certain medical conditions such as: kidney disease. liver disease.

Loratadine does not usually cause drowsiness when used at recommended doses. However, do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

If you have hives and your doctor has prescribed loratadine, or if you are considering using this drug to treat your own hives, tell your doctor right away if you have any of these other symptoms because they may be signs of a more serious condition: hives that are an unusual color, hives that look bruised or blistered, hives that do not itch.

This product may contain aspartame. If you have phenylketonuria (PKU) or any other condition that requires you to restrict your intake of aspartame (or phenylalanine ), consult your doctor or pharmacist about using this drug safely.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially drowsiness, or confusion. These side effects can increase the risk of falling.

During pregnancy. this medication should be used only when clearly needed and as directed by your doctor. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor before taking this drug.

This medication passes into breast milk. However, it is unlikely to harm a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breastfeeding .

Interactions

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor’s approval.

Loratadine is very similar to desloratadine. Do not use medications containing desloratadine while using loratadine.

This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including allergy skin testing ), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

Overdose

If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing. call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: severe drowsiness.

Notes

If your doctor has prescribed this medication for you, do not share it with others.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip themissed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Different brands/strengths of this medication may have different storage requirements. Read the package labeling or ask your pharmacist for the storage requirements for the product you are using. Protect from light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.Information last revised July 2016. Copyright(c) 2016 First Databank, Inc.

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Go bankrupt for free #bankruptcy, #bankruptcy #information, #effects #of #bankruptcy, #going #bankrupt,


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Going bankrupt

What is bankruptcy?

Bankruptcy is a legal process that releases a person from almost all of their debts.

You can apply to become bankrupt voluntarily if you have a debt of any amount you cannot pay. When you are a voluntary bankrupt, a trustee appointed by the Australian Financial Security Authority (AFSA) will manage your financial affairs. A fee may be charged where you have assets or earn above your income threshold amount (see information on the AFSA website for current thresholds ).

AFSA will advise you of when you are officially bankrupt. They will nominate a trustee to manage your financial affairs within two weeks of when you lodge your application with them. Bankruptcy lasts for three years from the day it is declared.

Creditors who have tried unsuccessfully to recover debts you owe that together total at least $5,000 can force you into bankruptcy. In this situation, a private trustee will manage your financial affairs and charge very high fees for this service.

Bankruptcy – a fresh start

The financial consequences of bankruptcy may adversely affect you immediately and into the future, however it can also offer you a fresh start. Depending on your circumstances, bankruptcy may:

  • have a positive impact on your life and provide you with a fresh start financially,
  • have significant consequences including making it difficult for you to obtain credit for a considerable time, limiting your future employment options, the loss of your home and other significant assets.

You need to act quickly if you are being pursued for debts and you wish to avoid bankruptcy. It’s essential that you get independent advice on your debt management options by speaking to a face to face financial counsellor or calling MoneyHelp. You must consider all of the advantages and disadvantages of bankruptcy if you are thinking about this option to deal with debts you cannot pay – even those advantages and disadvantages that do not currently apply to you.

The effects of bankruptcy

When you become bankrupt:

  • you can keep household goods and personal effects like a television, computer and furniture of reasonable value;
  • the fact of your bankruptcy will appear on your credit report for five years and on a public record known as the National Personal Insolvency Index for life (in practical terms though, you will find it difficult to obtain credit for five years, only the same time as for listed bad debts);
  • you may lose some of your assets (see next section) including your house and a car worth more than $7,700;
  • you can earn an income (a rate of $54,736.50 after tax for a person with no dependants and $69,515.12 for a person with two dependants) however if your after-tax income exceeds the amount applicable to you, you will need to pay contributions to your trustee for your creditors; and
  • you may need to continue to pay your Child support. Centrelink and Higher Education debts, and any court fines. Seek advice on this from a financial counsellor .

What happens to your assets when you are bankrupt?

Assets that are safe*

  • ordinary household goods such as furniture, a television and a computer
  • a car in which you have less than $7,700* equity
  • tools of trade to the value of $3,750*
  • up to $1,000 in bank accounts (deemed to be for living expenses)
  • superannuation, life insurance policies and personal injury compensation payments

Assets you will probably lose

  • real estate including houses and land
  • cars in which you have more than $7,700* equity
  • personal effects such as antiques and luxury electronic items
  • tools of trade over the value of $3,750*
  • artworks of significant value and some jewellery
  • any inheritance, tax refund or winnings
  • money in bank accounts in excess of $1,000

What employment restrictions apply to bankrupts?

Director of a company

You cannot be a director of a company or be involved in its management without the permission of the Court during the term of your bankruptcy.

Other employment restrictions

Professional bodies and/or trade associations have certain conditions of membership for the duration of a bankruptcy. There may be restrictions on holding some statutory positions during this period. Consumers should contact the relevant peak body of their trade or profession to see if there are any restrictions during and/or after bankruptcy.

Case study 1

Amanda was working in a contract role on a project with an engineering company and earning $1,200 a week for almost 12 months. It was a large, long-term project and Amanda believed she’d be in the role for the foreseeable future. She decided to purchase a home unit for $360,000 and a good second-hand car for $16,000.

The company put the project on hold because of financial uncertainty. Amanda’s role was not required and she became unemployed. Because she worked on contract she was not entitled to a redundancy payment from the company.

Amanda had thought she would find another job without too much trouble, and applied for a number of roles but without success.

Managing her mortgage, car loan and car insurance premiums soon became a challenge. She felt too intimidated to go to Centrelink and check her eligibility for benefits, and started relying on her credit card. She used it to pay her loans and insurance and got another card to pay for her everyday needs. Within three months she had run up debt of $12,000 on her cards, and couldn’t make the payments for her unit and her car.

Amanda became depressed about her situation and sought the help of a financial counsellor when both her home unit and car were repossessed.

The counsellor convinced Amanda of her right to register with Centrelink. This immediately gave her an income and a Health Care Card. The financial counsellor then did a thorough assessment of her financial situation (as well as the $12,000 owing on her credit card, Amanda had $80,000 still owing on her home and car loans) and after careful consideration, advised her to declare herself bankrupt.

While bankruptcy may seem like a drastic step, it provided Amanda with a way out of her debt crisis and her depression and left her to make a fresh financial start and gain some control over her life.

Helpful links


Radon (Rn) – Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects #radon, #rn #chemical


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Radon – Rn

Radon is colorless at standard temperature and pressure and it is the most dense gas known. At temperature below it’s freezing point is has a brilliant yellow phosphorescence. It is chemically unreactive, it is highly radioactive and has a short half life.

Radon was sometimes used in hospitals to treat cancer and was produced as needed and delivered in sealed gold needles. Radon is used in hydrologic research, because of it’s rapid loss to air. It is also used in geologic research and to track air masses.

Radon in the environment

Radon can be found in some spring water and hot springs. There is anyway a detectable amount of radon in the atmosphere. Radon collects over samples of radium 226 at the rate of around 0.001 cm3/day per g of radium.

Radon occurs in the environment mainly in the gaseous phase. Consequently, people are mainly exposed to radon through breathing air.

Background levels of radon in outside air are generally quite low, but in indoor locations radon levels in air may be higher. In homes, schools and buildings radon levels are increased because radon enters the buildings through cracks in the foundations and basements.

Some of the deep wells that supply us with drinking water may also contain radon. As a result a number of people may be exposed to radon through drinking water, as well as through breathing air.

Radon levels in groundwater are fairly high, but usually radon is quickly released into air as soon as the groundwater enters surface waters.

Exposure to high levels of radon through breathing air is known to cause lung diseases. When long-term exposure occurs radon increases the chances of developing lung cancer. Radon can only cause cancer after several years of exposure.

Radon may be radioactive, but it gives of little actual gamma radiation. As a result, harmful effects from exposure to radon radiation without actual contact with radon compounds are not likely to occur.

It is not known whether radon can cause health effects in other organs besides the lungs. The effects of radon, which is found in food or drinking water, are unknown.

Radon is a radioactive compound, which rarely occurs naturally in the environment. Most of the radon compounds found in the environment derive from human activities. Radon enters the environment through the soil, through uranium and phosphate mines, and through coal combustion.

Some of the radon that is located in the soil will move to the surface and enter the air through vaporization. In the air, radon compounds will attach to dust and other particles. Radon can also move downwards in the soil and enter the groundwater. However, most of the radon will remain in the soil.

Radon has a radioactive half-life of about four days; this means that one-half of a given amount of radon will decay to other compounds, usually less harmful compounds, every four days.


What is Alcohol Abuse? Alcoholism #what #is #alcohol #abuse, #alcohol #abuse #definition,


What is Alcohol Abuse?

Just as with any drug, people ask, “what is alcohol abuse?” It can be difficult to tell the difference between social drinking, moderate drinking and alcohol abuse, but the alcohol abuse definition comes down to one key point: is drinking causing problems in the person’s life?

When people start drinking, alcohol abuse is generally the furthest thing from their minds. Drinking is started recreationally, with friends and is associated with having a good time. This positive view of alcohol can be why it is so easy to slip into alcohol abuse. Often the thoughts of alcohol being a “good time” drug stop people from seeing the signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse.

What is Alcohol Abuse? – Alcohol Abuse Definition

The alcohol abuse definition is similar to alcoholism in that in both cases alcohol is causing harm to the drinker’s life and those around them. The difference is that those who abuse alcohol, but are not yet alcoholics, typically can put some limitations on their drinking and they have not yet become physically addicted to alcohol. The key to the alcohol abuse definition is not in the amount of alcohol consumed but on how it affects an individual. (See effects of alcohol )

What is Alcohol Abuse? – Signs of Alcohol Abuse

Because the alcohol abuse definition is general, the signs are unique for each person. Some of the signs will be similar to alcoholism but often to a lesser degree. Alcohol abuse is though, by definition, problem drinking. Signs that fit within the alcohol abuse definition include: iii

  • Repeatedly neglecting responsibilities due to drinking or hangover affects
  • Using alcohol in ways that are dangerous, for example, drinking and driving
  • Having repeated legal or financial trouble as a result of drinking
  • Continuing to drink in spite of its negative effects on relationships, work or other priorities
  • Drinking as a way to relax or de-stress
  • Drinking as a way to feel good, or simply not feel bad

What is Alcohol Abuse? – Effects of Alcohol Abuse

Long-term alcohol abuse can affect everything in a person’s life from their family, job and finances as well as almost every organ in the body. The most important part in understanding the alcohol abuse definition is determining whether it applies in your life so help for alcohol abuse can be sought as soon as possible.

It is important to understand that while not everyone who abuses alcohol goes on to become an alcoholic, alcohol abuse is one of the biggest risk factors to becoming an alcoholic.

More on Alcohol Abuse

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Depressant Drug Abuse and Side Effects #drug #side #effects #& #withdrawal #symptoms


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Depressants

Depressants are psychoactive drugs which temporarily diminish the normal function of the brain and central nervous system. These drugs include opiates and opioids. barbiturates. benzodiazepines. tranquilizers and alcohol. Due to their effects, these drugs can be referred to as “downers”.

Types of Depressants

Alcohol is the most frequently used depressant. Types of alcohol include beer, wine, and liquor. Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. Other physiological effects include altered perception of space and time, reduced psychomotor skills, disrupting equilibrium. The immediate effects of a large amount of alcohol include spurred speech, disturbed sleep, nausea, and vomiting. Even at low doses, alcohol significantly impairs judgment and coordination.

Barbiturates are a group of drugs known as sedative-hypnotics, creating sleep-inducing and anxiety-decreasing effects. Barbiturates produce effects from mild sedation to total anesthesia. Barbiturates can be injected into veins or muscles, but usually taken in pill form. They are sedatives used to treat insomnia. anxiety. and seizures. Barbiturates produce similar effects during intoxication. Symptoms of barbiturate intoxication include respiratory depression, lowered blood pressure, fatigue, fever, unusual excitement, irritability, dizziness, poor concentration, sedation, confusion, impaired coordination, impaired judgment, addiction, and respiratory arrest which may lead to death. Users report that a barbiturate high gives feelings of relaxed contentment and euphoria. The main risk of abuse is respiratory depression. Other effects of barbiturate intoxication include drowsiness, lateral and vertical nystagmus, slurred speech and ataxia, decreased anxiety and loss of inhibitions.

Benzodiazepine, commonly referred to as “benzo”, are most commonly used to treat insomnia and anxiety. The five most common benzos are Xanax. Ativan. Klonopin. Valium. and Restoril. Benzodiazepines are used to produce sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and to prevent seizures. In general, they act as hypnotics in high doses, anxiolytics in moderate doses, and sedatives in low doses.

Opiates are found in opium. The major active opiates found in opium are morphine. codeine. thebaine, and papaverine. Semi-synthetic opioid such as heroin. oxycodone. and hydrocodone are derived from these substances as well. Opiates can be injected, snorted, or smoked. The short-term effect of opiate abuse consists of a surge of euphoria coupled with a warm flushing of the skin, dry mouth, and heavy extremities. Following initial euphoria, users alternate between a wakeful and drowsy state. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system.

Tranquilizers are used to treat anxiety or problems with sleep. They have a calming effect by depressing the nervous system in a way similar to alcohol. They are the most commonly prescribed psychiatric medications. They produce a relaxing and anxiety-reducing effect. Minor tranquilizers have direct depressant effects on brain areas that regulate wakefulness and alertness. They enhance the action of receptors that stimulate the nervous system. Major tranquilizers primarily affect specific receptors in the brain that reduce psychotic thoughts, perceptions and agitation.

Side Effects

General side effects may include:

  • Anxioysis
  • Analgesia
  • Sedation
  • Somnolence
  • Cognitive/Memory Impairment
  • Dissociation
  • Muscle relaxation
  • Lowered blood pressure/heart rate
  • Respiratory depression
  • Anesthesia
  • Anticonvulsant effects
  • Feelings of euphoria

Health Effects

Most CNS depressants act on the brain by affecting the neurotransmitter gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA). Neurotransmitters are brain chemicals that enable communication between brain cells. GABA works by decreasing brain activity. So, due to depressants ability to increase GABA activity, a drowsy or calming effect is produced.

With continued use of depressants, the body will develop a tolerance for the drugs, requiring larger doses to achieve the initial effects. When use is reduced or stopped, withdrawal will occur due to the reuse of brain activity, potentially leading to seizures and other harmful consequences.

Related Drugs Depressants Articles


Roxanol – Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol #titanic #hotel #turkey

#roxanol hospice

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Roxanol

Roxanol is a prescription medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. Roxanol belongs to a group of drugs called opioid narcotics. Opioid narcotics bind to receptors throughout the body which works to relieve moderate to severe pain.

Roxanol comes in an oral solution and the dose will be individualized.

Common side effects of Roxanol include constipation. nausea, itchiness, and sleepiness. Do not drink alcohol or any foods or medications containing alcohol while taking Roxanol as alcohol increases the risk that you will experience breathing problems or other serious, life-threatening side effects.

Patient Ratings for Roxanol

How was your experience with Roxanol?

Roxanol Cautionary Labels

Uses of Roxanol

Roxanol is a prescription medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. This medication is indicated for the relief of acute and chronic pain in opioid-tolerant patients.

This medication may be prescribed for other uses. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.





LASEK Laser Eye Surgery #lasek, #lasik, #prk, #eye, #surgery, #vision, #glasses, #contacts,


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LASEK Eye Surgery

LASEK is an eye surgery that combines many of the benefits of other vision correction surgeries.

Laser epithelial keratomileusis, or LASEK, combines benefits of the two most commonly performed procedures — LASIK and PRK. LASEK eye surgery is used to treat astigmatism. nearsightedness. or farsightedness .

What Are the Advantages of LASEK Eye Surgery?

LASEK surgery is said to have several advantages, including:

  • Complications associated with creating and reattaching the flap in the cornea are avoided.
  • LASEK eye surgery causes dry eye less frequently than LASIK eye surgery .

In LASEK eye surgery, various techniques are used to retain the very thin corneal surface layer of cells (epithelium) that is used to recover the cornea after the laser sculpting is performed. With LASIK. a thicker flap is created using a laser or mechanical device (microkeratome) under which the laser sculpting is done.

What Are the Disadvantages of LASEK Eye Surgery?

Disadvantages of LASEK eye surgery include:

  • Longer visual recovery time compared to LASIK eye surgery. Many LASEK patients will not fully recover functional vision for at least one to two weeks while their eye heals, which is similar to the healing time experienced in PRK eye surgery. LASIK patients often have good vision by the day after surgery.
  • LASEK eye surgery usually causes more pain and discomfort than LASIK. but possibly less pain than PRK surgery.
  • Patients need to wear a “bandage contact lens” for about three or four days after LASEK eye surgery to serve as a protective layer between your blinking eyelids and the treated eye surface, which is not necessary after LASIK.
  • Patients must use topical steroid drops for several weeks longer than after LASIK eye surgery.

What Are the Possible Side Effects of LASEK Eye Surgery?

Side effects may include:

  • Sensation of having a foreign object in your eye (lasts anywhere from one to four days)
  • Temporarily reduced vision under poorly lit conditions (up to 12 months)
  • Dry eyes. requiring the use of moisturizing drops (up to six months)
  • Hazy or cloudy vision (should disappear within six to nine months)

Continued

How Do I Know If LASEK Eye Surgery Is for Me?

LASEK eye surgery may be better for patients who have steep or very thin corneas, which make it difficult for the surgeon to make a proper LASIK flap. Since traumatic injury to the eye is more serious after LASIK than after LASEK eye surgery, patients who engage in professional or leisure activities that put their eyes at increased risk for injury (such as boxing) may be better suited for LASEK. LASEK (or PRK) eye surgery may be better for people with dry eye syndrome because in avoiding a deeper flap, the corneal nerves responsible for the tearing reflex are not cut.

How Do I Prepare for LASEK Laser Eye Surgery?

Before your LASEK laser eye surgery you will meet with an eye surgeon or a coordinator who will discuss what you should expect during and after the laser eye surgery. During this session your medical history will be evaluated and your eyes will be tested. Likely tests include measuring corneal thickness, refraction, corneal mapping, eye pressure, and pupil dilation. Once you have gone through your evaluation your surgeon will answer any questions you may have. Afterwards, you can schedule an appointment for the procedure.

If you wear rigid gas permeable contact lenses. you should not wear them for three weeks before your evaluation. Other types of contact lenses shouldn’t be worn for at least three days prior to the evaluation.

On the day of your LASEK laser eye surgery, eat a light meal before going to the doctor, and take all of your prescribed medications. Do not wear eye makeup or have any bulky accessories in your hair that will interfere with positioning your head under the laser. If you do not feel well that morning, call the doctor’s office to determine whether the procedure needs to be postponed.

What Happens During LASEK Eye Surgery?

LASEK eye surgery is done under a topical anesthesia placed directly into the eye. During the procedure, the top layer of cells, or epithelium, is treated with alcohol for about 30 seconds and detached from the underlying tissue. It is then lifted or rolled back so that the eye doctor can access the cornea tissue. The newly exposed tissue is treated with the same laser used in LASIK eye surgery and PRK. Then the top layer of cells is put into place.

This is in contrast to LASIK eye surgery, in which a laser or cutting device makes a flap in the cornea. LASEK eye surgery differs from PRK by preserving the top layer of cells, rather than scraping them away and waiting for them to grow back. This is believed to facilitate healing of the cornea with less discomfort than PRK.

Continued

What Happens After LASEK Eye Surgery?

After LASEK eye surgery, expectations are similar to what can be expected after LASIK. The flap created by LASEK eye surgery heals in about four to seven days, and the patient usually wears a special contact lens that acts as a bandage for up to four days after surgery. Patients also may experience irritation in their eye during the first day or two after LASEK eye surgery.

For patients who undergo the LASIK procedure, good vision is usually attained in a few days. However, for LASEK eye surgery this may take as long as a week.

You will revisit the doctor for an evaluation the day after LASEK eye surgery, and commonly one week and three months after surgery.

When to Call the Doctor About LASEK

If you have any questions after your LASEK eye surgery or if you experience pain, a sudden decrease in vision, red eye(s), or discharge from your eye(s), contact your eye doctor immediately.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Brian S. Boxer Wachler, MD on January 24, 2016

Sources

SOURCES:
Council for Refractive Surgery Quality Assurance.
International Society For Refractive Surgery of the American Academy of Ophthalmology

© 2016 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.


Side Effects of Chemotherapy #hotel #offers

#palliative chemotherapy

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Chemotherapy treats many types of cancer effectively. But like other treatments, it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. They depend on the type of cancer, location, drugs and dose, and your general health.

Why does chemotherapy cause side effects?

Chemotherapy works on active cells. Active cells are cells that are growing and dividing into more of the same type of cell. Cancer cells are active, but so are some healthy cells. These include cells in your blood, mouth, digestive system, and hair follicles. Side effects happen when chemotherapy damages these healthy cells.

Can side effects be treated?

Yes. Your health care team can help you prevent or treat many side effects. Today, many more medications are available for side effects than in the past. Preventing and treating side effects is now an important part of cancer treatment. It is part of a type of care called palliative care.

Also, doctors and scientists work constantly to develop drugs, drug combinations, and ways of giving treatment with fewer side effects. Many types of chemotherapy are easier to tolerate than they were a few years ago.

Common side effects

Different drugs cause different side effects. Certain types of chemotherapy often have specific side effects. But, each person’s experience is different.

Tell your doctor about all the side effects you notice. For most types of chemotherapy, side effects do not show how well treatment is working. But they can for some types of drugs called targeted therapies. Learn more about targeted therapy.

Below is a list of common side effects of traditional chemotherapy.

Fatigue. Fatigue is feeling tired or exhausted almost all the time. It is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. Learn more about how to cope with fatigue.

Pain. Chemotherapy sometimes causes pain. This can include:

  • Headaches
  • Muscle pain
  • Stomach pain
  • Pain from nerve damage, such as burning, numbness, or shooting pains, usually in the fingers and toes

Pain usually gets less with time. However, some people have permanent nerve damage. This can cause symptoms for months or years after treatment.

Doctors can treat pain by:

  • Treating the source of the pain
  • Giving pain-relieving medications
  • Blocking pain signals from the nerves to the brain with spinal treatments or nerve blocks

Mouth and throat sores. Chemotherapy can damage the cells inside the mouth and throat. This causes painful sores in these areas, a condition called mucositis.

Mouth sores usually happen 5 to 14 days after a treatment. The sores can get infected. Eating a healthy diet and keeping your mouth and teeth clean can lower your risk of mouth sores. Mouth sores usually go away completely when treatment ends. Learn more about managing mucositis and oral health during cancer treatment .

Diarrhea. Some chemotherapy causes loose or watery bowel movements. Preventing diarrhea or treating it early helps keep you from getting dehydrated (losing too much body fluid). It also helps prevent other health problems. Learn more about managing diarrhea .

Nausea and vomiting. Chemotherapy can cause nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) and vomiting (throwing up). Whether you have these side effects, and how much, depends on the specific drugs and dose. The right medications given before and after each dose of chemotherapy can usually prevent nausea and vomiting. Learn more about nausea and vomiting. Read ASCO’s guideline for preventing these side effects .

Constipation. Chemotherapy can cause constipation. This means not having a bowel movement often enough or having difficult bowel movements. Other medications, such as pain medication, can also cause constipation. Drinking enough fluids, eating balanced meals, and getting enough exercise can lower your risk of constipation. Learn more about managing constipation.

Blood disorders. Your bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside your bones. It makes new blood cells. Chemotherapy affects this process, so you might have side effects from having too few blood cells.

Your health care team uses the following tests to check for blood disorders:

  • Complete blood count (CBC) – This test shows the levels of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) in your blood.
    • Not enough RBCs causes a condition called anemia. Symptoms include fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath.
    • Not enough WBCs causes a condition called leukopenia. This raises your risk of getting infections. Getting one when your WBCs are low can be serious. If you get an infection, you need antibiotics as soon as possible.
    • Platelet count – This test measures the number of platelets in your blood. Platelets are cells that stop bleeding. They do this by plugging damaged blood vessels and helping blood form clots.
      • Not having enough platelets causes a condition called thrombocytopenia. You can bleed and bruise more easily than normal.

Medications can treat all these blood disorders, and prevent leukopenia for patients with a high risk. The medications help your bone marrow make more blood cells. Learn more about managing anemia. infection. and thrombocytopenia .

Nervous system effects. Some drugs cause nerve damage. This can cause the following nerve or muscle symptoms:

  • Tingling
  • Burning
  • Weakness or numbness in the hands, feet, or both
  • Weak, sore, tired, or achy muscles
  • Loss of balance
  • Shaking or trembling

You might also have a stiff neck, headache, or problems seeing, hearing, or walking normally. You might feel clumsy. These symptoms usually get better with a lower chemotherapy dose or after treatment. But damage is sometimes permanent. Learn more about managing nervous system side effects .

Changes in thinking and memory. Some people have trouble thinking clearly and concentrating after chemotherapy. Cancer survivors often call this chemo brain. Your doctor might call it cognitive changes or cognitive dysfunction.

Sexual and reproductive issues. Chemotherapy can affect your fertility. For women, this is the ability to get pregnant and carry a pregnancy. For men, fertility is the ability to make a woman pregnant. Being tired or feeling sick from cancer or treatment can also affect your ability to enjoy sex. Talk with your doctor about these possible side effects before treatment starts. Learn more about managing sexual and reproductive side effects .

Chemotherapy can harm a fetus (unborn baby). This is especially true in the first 3 months of pregnancy, when the organs are still developing. If you could get pregnant during treatment, use effective birth control. If you do get pregnant, tell your doctor right away. Learn more about pregnancy and cancer.

Appetite loss. You might eat less than usual, not feel hungry at all, or feel full after eating a small amount. If this lasts through treatment, you may lose weight and not get the nutrition you need. You may also lose muscle mass and strength. All these things lower your ability to recover from chemotherapy. Learn more about managing appetite loss .

Hair loss. Some types of chemotherapy cause hair loss from all over your body. It may come out a little at a time or in large clumps. Hair loss usually starts after the first several weeks of chemotherapy. It tends to increase 1 to 2 months into treatment. Your doctor can predict the risk of hair loss based on the drugs and doses you are receiving. Learn more about managing hair loss .

Long-term side effects. Most side effects go away after treatment. But some continue, come back, or develop later. For example, some types of chemotherapy may cause permanent damage to the heart, lung, liver, kidneys, or reproductive system. And some people have trouble with thinking, concentrating, and memory for months or years after treatment.

Nervous system changes can develop after treatment. Children who had chemotherapy may develop side effects that happen months or years after treatment. These are called late effects. Cancer survivors also have a higher risk of second cancers later in life.

Care after cancer treatment is important

Getting care after treatment ends is important. Your health care team can help you treat long-term side effects and watch for late effects. This care is called follow-up care. Your follow-up care might include regular physical examinations, medical tests, or both.

ASCO has cancer treatment summary forms. The forms help you keep track of the cancer treatment you received and develop a survivorship plan after treatment.

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Roxanol (Morphine Sulfate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses #sue #ryder

#roxanol hospice

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What are the possible side effects of morphine (Avinza, Kadian, MS Contin, MSIR, Oramorph SR)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • shallow breathing, slow heartbeat;
  • stiff muscles, seizure (convulsions);
  • cold, clammy skin;
  • confusion, unusual thoughts or behavior;
  • severe weakness, feeling like you might pass out;
  • trouble swallowing;
  • urinating less than usual or not at all;
  • pale skin.

What are the precautions when taking morphine sulfate (Roxanol)?

Before taking morphine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other narcotic pain medications (such as codeine); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease, liver disease, lung diseases (such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD), breathing problems (such as slow/shallow breathing, sleep apnea), a certain spinal problem (kyphoscoliosis), certain heart problems (irregular heartbeat), personal or family history of regular use/abuse of drugs/alcohol, brain disorders (such as seizures, head.

Last reviewed on RxList: 8/22/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.