Hip Replacement #hip #replacement #failure #rate, #metal #on #metal #hip #joint, #metal


#

Metal Hips Fail Faster, Raise Other Health Concerns

For many people with severe hip arthritis, total joint replacement brings pain relief and improved mobility for the life of the implant typically 15 years or more. But a new study shows that some metal-on-metal implants are likely to fail much sooner, especially in women. The study adds to a growing list of problems linked to metal-on-metal implants, including bone and tissue destruction and high levels of metal ions in the blood.

For the study, published online in 2012 in The Lancet, researchers used data from the National Joint Registry of England and Wales the world s largest joint replacement registry to track more than 400,000 patients who underwent primary hip replacement from 2003 to 2011. Of these, 31,171 received metal-on-metal implants hips with a ball and cup made of a cobalt and chromium alloy.

Compared with implants made of other materials, all-metal joints had a substantially higher overall failure rate. After five years, 6.2 percent of metal-on-metal hips had failed, whereas only 3.2 percent of ceramic hips and 1.7 percent of metal-on-plastic implants had. Failure rates were highest for younger women and for implants with larger heads 36 millimeters or more in both men and women. The head is the ball of the device that fits into the hip socket.

Joel Buchalter, MD, a clinical assistant professor of orthopaedic surgery at New York University Medical Center, explains that manufacturers developed metal-on-metal implants with larger heads to prevent the problems that lead to early failure.

Hip replacements can fail for several reasons, but the most common is loosening, in which components detach from the bone. Friction from normal wear produces debris that causes inflammation in the tissues around the joint. Over time, bone erodes and the implant loosens, leading to pain and decreased function. Implants can also dislocate meaning the metal ball slips out of the socket often within the first few weeks after hip replacement. Failed hips must be removed and replaced in a complex revision surgery. This operation is often less successful than the original hip replacement because bone loss makes the new implant harder to anchor.

Dr. Buchalter says the metal-on-metal devices were targeted at active younger adults who needed a hip that lasted decades. In mechanical models, metal-on-metal implants with large-diameter heads showed extremely low wear and better lubrication, so they seemed an excellent solution, he says.

The Lancet study authors thought so, too, until they looked at the data.

We were surprised by the results, as studies suggest that larger heads should have lower wear and a lower risk of dislocation. However, we have seen an increase in revisions for pain and loosening, particularly in women, says Alison Smith, a study author and statistician at the University of Bristol in the U.K.

Depending on patient age and implant head size, the revision rate for all-metal hips is three to four times higher in women and two to three times higher in men compared with other implants.

Ashley Blom, MD, a study author and professor of orthopaedic surgery at the University of Bristol, suggests that hip anatomy or the presence of osteoporosis (which is more common in women) might account for the greater number of problems in women. He adds that several small studies show women also are more sensitive to the metal ions shed by the implants.

Why all-metal hips fail more often still isn t entirely clear, and the British researchers conclude that more research is needed. We do not fully understand the mechanism of failure of these hips, they say. We need more studies to shed some light on this.

In 2010, device maker DePuy recalled its articular surface replacement hips, or ASR hips, after they failed in about 12 percent of patients who received them. The recalled ASR devices were excluded from the current study.

Metal-on-metal implants have raised other concerns in addition to early failure rates, including potential harm from cobalt and chromium ions released into the bloodstream when metal parts rub together. In February, the journal BMJ published results of a comprehensive investigation of metal implants. Among other findings, investigators concluded that systemic metal ions can cause cardiovascular problems and may damage DNA.

However, Art Sedrakyan, MD, an associate professor at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, points out that no good studies of the short- and long-term effects of ions exist. We don t know what the consequences of even moderately elevated ion levels might be over time, and there is no clear evidence that they lead to cancer or cardiomyopathy or other complications. We just don t know, he says.

Dr. Sedrakyan, an authority on comparative effectiveness research, adds that in May 2011, the FDA ordered 21 makers of metal-on-metal hip implants to provide safety studies, including information on metal ion levels. Once that data is available and independent experts can analyze it, we can make better decisions, he says.

David Lewallen, MD, an orthopaedic surgeon at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. and board chairman of the newly launched American Joint Replacement Registry (a national center for data collection and research on total hip and knee replacements), says it s also important to put current findings in context.

Hip replacement is one of the most successful surgeries in the history of medicine, and the improvements it makes in the lives of patients are dramatic, he says. The majority of people, including those with all-metal hips, do extremely well, he adds.

Still, many physicians and leading orthopaedic institutions, such as Rush University Medical Center in Chicago and the Mayo Clinic, have halted or scaled back use of all-metal implants.

But what about the 500,000 Americans who already have metal hips? Unlike Britain, no formal guidelines or protocols exist in the United States for dealing with metal-on-metal implants, so doctors are developing their own.

Dr. Lewallen urges all hip replacement patients to see their doctors at regular intervals, even if they have no symptoms. And he recommends surveillance of metal ion levels for patients with metal-on-metal implants, especially if they have kidney disease or other health problems. Ultimately, he says, care should be individualized to the needs of each patient.

Nicolas Noiseux, MD, an assistant professor of orthopaedics at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, also endorses a patient-specific approach.

I see patients who have large-head metal implants once a year, and at the slightest complaint, I suggest testing for blood cobalt and chromium. If the numbers are seven parts per billion or above, I follow patients more closely than a yearly interval and may recommend further imaging, such as an MRI, to assess fluid accumulation around the joint. And certainly in that case, or in the face of metal ions above seven parts per billion, some patients have elected to have [the implant removed], he explains.

Dr. Buchalter endorses a similar program for patients with metal hips, but believes annual monitoring for the life of the implant now required in Britain is essential. He says regular blood tests and MRIs can alert doctors and patients to impending implant failure.

Dr. Sedrakyan agrees that all options should be discussed in order to decide the best course for each patient. But, he says, as more information accumulates, we will be able to frame these recommendations based on better evidence.

As for the future, Dr. Lewallen says metal hips may even have a silver lining. Patients are now aware that being seen regularly is crucial, and that awareness may help prevent more serious problems, he says.

He adds that concerns about metal implants have helped increase interest in an American Joint Replacement Registry. Until recently, the United States lacked a large, nationwide registry to track long-term outcomes of joint replacments. Dr. Lewallen says that by uncovering problems sooner, registry data should improve patient safety and overall quality of care.

Want to read more? Subscribe Now to Arthritis Today !


Skeletal System #skeletal, #system, #skeleton, #appendicular, #axial, #cartilage, #bone, #joint, #skeletal #system,


#

Skeletal System

Introduction to Human Skeletal System:

Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Almost all the hard parts of human body are components of human skeletal system. Joints are very important because they make the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of movements at different locations. If the skeleton were without joints, no movement would have taken place and the significance of human body; no more than a stone.

Components of Human Skeleton:

Human skeleton is composed of three main components; Bones, Associated cartilages and Joints.

Bone is a tough and rigid form of connective tissue. It is the weight bearing organ of human body and it is responsible for almost all strength of human skeleton. For more details visit: Basic anatomy article; Bone .

Cartilage is also a form of connective tissue but is not as tough and rigid as bone. The main difference in the cartilage and bone is the mineralization factor. Bones are highly mineralized with calcium salts while cartilages are not. For more details visit: Basic anatomy article; Cartilage and its types .

Joints are important components of human skeleton because they make the human skeleton mobile. A joint occurs between two or more bones , bone and cartilage and cartilage and cartilage . For more details visit: Joints

Divisions of Human Skeleton:

Human skeleton can be divided into two divisions.

Axial skeleton forms the axis of human body. It consists of Skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage.

  • Skull: Skull is that part of human skeleton that forms the bony framework of the head. It consists of 22 different bones that are divided into two groups: bones of cranium and bones of face. For more details, visit:
  • Vertebral Column: It is a flexible column of vertebrae, connecting the trunk of human body to the skull and appendages. It is composed of 33 vertebrae which are divided into 5 regions: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal. For more details, visit:
  • Rib Cage: It is a bony cage enclosing vital human organs formed by the sternum and ribs. There are 12 pairs of ribs that are divided into three groups: True ribs, False ribs, and Floating ribs. For more details, visit: .

It is the skeleton of appendages of human body. It consists of Shoulder girdle, Skeleton of upper limb, Pelvic girdle and Skeleton of lower limb.

  • Shoulder Girdle: It attaches the upper limb to body trunk and is formed by two bones: clavicle and scapula.Clavicle is a modified long bone and is subcutaneous throughout its position. It is also known as the beauty bone. For more details on clavicle, visit: Scapula is a pear shaped flat bone that contains the glenoid fossa for the formation of shoulder joint. It possesses three important processes: Spine of scapula, Acromion process and Coracoid process. For more details, visit .
  • Skeleton of Upper limb: The skeleton of each upper limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are: Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals (8), Metacarpals (5), Phalanges (14).Click on the name of any bone for more details.
  • Pelvic Girdle: There are two pelvic girdles (one for each lower limb) but unlike the pectoral girdles, they are jointed with each other at symphysis pubis. Each pelvic girdle is a single bone in adults and is made up of three components: Ileum, Ischium and Pubis. For more details, visit Hip Bone .
  • Skeleton of Lower limb: The skeleton of each lower limb consists of 30 bones. These bones are; Femur, Tibia, Patella, Tarsals (7), Metatarsals (5), Phalanges (14).Click on the name of any bone for more details.

Functions of human skeleton:

Human skeleton performs some important functions that are necessary for survival of human beings.

  1. STRENGTH, SUPPORT AND SHAPE: It gives strength, support and shape to the body. Without a hard and rigid skeletal system, human body cannot stand upright, and it will become just a bag of soft tissues without any proper shape
  2. PROTECTION OF DELICATE ORGANS: In areas like the rib cage and skull, the skeleton protects inner soft but vital organs like heart and brain from external shocks. Any damage to these organs can prove fatal, therefore protective function of skeleton is very important
  3. LEVERAGE FOR MOVEMENTS: Bones of the human skeleton in all parts of body provide attachment to the muscles. These muscles provide motor power for producing movements of body parts. In these movements the parts of skeleton acts like levers of different types thus producing movements according to the needs of the human body.
  4. PRODUCTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS: Bones like the sternum, and heads of tibia have hemopoeitic activity (blood cells production). These are the sites of production of new blood cells.

Learn Human Skeleton at MANanatomy.com:

Basic Anatomy of Skeletal System

Bones of Upper Limb


Physical Therapy, Sports Rehab, Geriatric Rehab, Occupational Therapy #palisades #rehab, #rehab, #physical


#

Palisades Physical Rehab, Sports Wellness Center

Palisades Rehab is the Northern Valley’s leader for physical and occupational therapy, including surgical rehabilitation. Family owned and operated since 1997, the Palisades team believes that the secret to healing lies in treating the whole person. We specialize in delivering skilled, customized care to clients of all ages while creating a warm, accommodating treatment environment. Approaching each client with the compassion, respect and concern they deserve, our staff works to restore function, eliminate pain and expedite the return to activity.

The Palisades Rehab team is comprised of highly trained therapists experienced in a range of disciplines. Aptly described as a family, our therapy team ensures that clients are fully educated about their condition, and that they feel welcome and supported during therapy visits. In addition, we support aftercare and therapy follow-through, encouraging clients to return for periodic check-ups or to participate in our wellness program.

Palisades Rehab is Medicare certified, and is a member of the prestigious Hospital for Special Surgery Rehab Network. Highly regarded by surgeons, physicians and nearby hospitals, our team of therapy professionals is trained and certified in the industry’s most progressive therapy and rehabilitation techniques. In addition to physician referrals, many patients come to us after learning of our reputation through friends, family and word-of-mouth.

Click to learn about our orthopedic & physical therapy services

Palisades provides comprehensive treatment options for a range of injuries, degenerative conditions and long-term health problems, and can provide home visits for patients who are eligible.

Orthopedic therapy includes, but is not limited to:

  • Joint Replacement
  • Fracture Management
  • Back and Neck Pain
  • Hand Injuries
  • Arthritis
  • Bursitis & Tendonitis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Sports Injuries
  • Rotator Cuff Injuries

Neurological rehabilitation includes, but is not limited to:

  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Stroke
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Vestibular & Balance Disorders

Home visits are designed to improve your well-being and everyday quality of life. Features include:

  • Home safety assessments
  • Fall prevention training
  • In-home rehabilitative therapy programs
  • Proactive training for home tasks, like climbing stairs, reaching cabinets, showering, cooking & cleaning

Aging in Place Home Modifications

“Aging in place” is a catchphrase that describes baby boomers who are choosing to modify their existing home as they age, rather than move to assisted living environments. If you or someone you love is experiencing a decline in safety, or is frustrated by a lack of independence, the Palisades’ team can help. Our occupational therapy practitioners will come to your home, evaluate your environment and recommend adaptations to prevent injury or frustration.

Through this service, we focus on reducing falls, promoting a healthy lifestyle and teaching clients to safely carry out their activities of daily living. Palisades’ practitioners are a valuable asset to professional teams, and are experienced in working with clients and their caregivers, as well as architects and construction companies who help to carry out modifications. Call today to schedule your “Aging in Place” evaluation, or speak with a Palisades’ occupational therapy practitioner.

Driver Safety

For most of us, driving is a way to stay connected to our world: to visit friends, go shopping and remain mobile. Unfortunately, aging can challenge our senses, along with physical and mental capabilities and ultimately may impact our ability to safely transport ourselves and others.

At Palisades Rehab, our occupational therapy practitioners have the expertise to assess vision, cognition, motor skills and perception. Through this evaluation, therapists can help older drivers compensate for life changes that impact their driving. And, when it’s time to give up driving, our OT team helps patients (1) adjust to the idea, (2) consider other forms of transportation, and (3) remain as independent and safe as possible.

Monthly Maintenance Program

Upon discharge from therapy services, we offer a monthly maintenance program to help you continue your path to good health. Talk to your therapist for more information!

Click to learn about Direct Access (DA)

At Palisades Rehab, we understand that things happen unexpectedly and that you may need to see a therapist before you’ve had the opportunity to see your physician. To assist with this, our facility participates in the Direct Access (DA) program. According to NJ Direct Access Law, you can see a physical therapist for up to 30 days before requiring a prescription for further treatment. NJ Direct Access allows you to begin your treatment program sooner so you can get back on your feet faster.

*While most health insurances cover physical therapy obtained by using Direct Access, plans differ. Please check with your insurance provider. Note: Medicare does not permit Direct Access.

For more information about Palisades Rehab, or to inquire about program specialties, insurance coverage and admission requirements, call or email our team of therapists today.

Contact Information
Sitemap
Other Links


International Tax Attorneys Washington DC Foreign Acquisitions Joint Ventures Tax Planning: Ivins,


#

International Tax

Ivins, Phillips Barker is a recognized national leader in handling U.S. federal income tax issues involving both activities of United States taxpayers in foreign countries, and activities of foreign taxpayers in the United States. Our firm serves individuals and corporations throughout the United States and all over the world.

Our international tax attorneys have mastered all areas of international business taxation, including foreign acquisitions, dispositions and multinational restructurings, joint ventures, tax planning for intangibles, including issues relating to the international licensing of intangibles and international intangible structures, use of hybrid entities, intercompany transfer pricing (including negotiating advance pricing and competent authority agreements), income sourcing, foreign tax credits, allocation and apportionment of deductions, dual consolidated losses, sub part F, income tax treaties, and foreign currency transactions. The lawyers within our international group are involved in analyzing these issues in connection with tax planning transactions and in tax controversies with the Internal Revenue Service.

Our international tax attorneys also regularly advise U.S. and non-U.S. high net worth individuals in connection with U.S. tax issues, including issued relating to business planning for inbound and outbound investment, expatriation, residency and related treaty issues, and participation in the Internal Revenue Service Voluntary Compliance Program, especially in relationship to complying with U.S. foreign bank account reporting rules.

In addition to our talented team of attorneys, we have access to an extensive network of leading firms and practitioners around the world. We are able to call upon the expertise of these colleagues at any time, in order to respond quickly to our clients’ needs. Our clients include United States and foreign multinational corporations.

Representative Experience

  • Structuring multinational corporate structures for publicly traded and private companies, including coordination of tax advice with local counsel
  • Assisting French multinational in connection with reorganization of U.S. corporate structure
  • Advising private textile company in connection with intercompany transfer pricing, including preparation of associated transfer pricing study
  • Representing publicly traded multinational video game company in all aspects of international licensing of intellectual property, including U.S. federal income tax aspects of related income and expense
  • Representing publicly traded multinational entertainment company in competent authority request regarding intercompany royalties.
  • Representing publicly traded multinational company in connection with dual consolidated loss issues relating to its international tax structure
  • Assisting U.S. insurer in connection with planning for offshore structured settlement arrangements
  • Assisting Japanese multinational computer company in negotiating renewal of Advance Pricing Agreement
  • Assisting multinational auto company in connection with audit issues relating to implementation of its Advance Pricing Agreement
  • Representing several individuals in connection with Internal Revenue Service voluntary disclosure program as it relates to disclosure of foreign bank accounts
  • Representing U.S. real estate fund in connection with fund structuring for non-US and tax exempt investors
  • Representing U.S. publicly traded brokerage in connection with U.K. acquisition
  • Representing Europe based broker-dealer in connection with structuring U.S. activities, including transfer pricing aspects
  • Representing U.S. indivdual in connection with “passive foreign investment company” (PFIC) issues in connection with a multi-million dollar disposition of shares of a non-U.S. company
  • Representing non-US person in connection with expatriation issues under Section 877 of the Internal Revenue Code
News
Strategies Opportunities
Publications

Interstitial Lung Disease Arthritis #interstitial #lung #disease #rheumatoid #arthritis, #ild, #ra, #ild


#

RA and Lung Disease: What You Need to Know

Besides the joints, the inflammatory process that underlies rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also affects other parts of the body, including lungs, skin, eyes, digestive system, heart and blood vessels. RA-related lung complications are the most common extra-articular ( outside of the joints ) manifestations of RA and include pulmonary nodules (small growths in the lungs); pleural effusion (a buildup of fluid between the lung and chest wall); bronchiectasis (damage to the airways); and interstitial lung disease (ILD).

In fact, it is estimated that 1 in 10 people with rheumatoid arthritis will develop ILD over the course of their disease, making it as deadly among people with RA as congestive heart failure.

What Is Interstitial Lung Disease?

Interstitial lung disease refers to a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue. In the case of RA-associated ILD, the scarring is caused when the over-active immune system attacks the lungs. When the scarring builds up over time, breathing becomes difficult, and patients may need lung transplants to regain function.

Risk Factors for Interstitial Lung Disease

The risk of developing lung disease is eight times higher in people with RA than in the general population. However, most people with RA are not affected. Risk factors for ILD include:

  • Smoking. People with RA who smoke are more likely to develop ILD.

Higher RA disease activity. High levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (antiCCP) antibodies substances that are indicative of more active disease increase the risk for development of ILD.

Older age at diagnosis. People who are diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis after age 60 are more likely to develop ILD.

Male Gender. Men with RA have a two-to-three times higher risk of developing ILD than women.

Treatment with methotrexate and other DMARDs. Several DMARDs, including methotrexate, leflunomide and azathioprine, as well as biologics, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, have been associated with RA-ILD, according to a literature review published in the April 2014 issue of Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. But Dr. Teng Moua, a pulmonologist specializing in ILD at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. says the risk of methotrexate-induced lung injury is less than 1 percent and is reversible once the drug is stopped. According to Dr. Moua, the benefits of methotrexate far outweigh its risks. However, methotrexate is not recommended for people with existing ILD or RA-ILD by the American College of Rheumatology in their 2012 guidelines.

Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Disease

It is challenging to catch ILD early because it doesn t cause any specific symptoms. Once shortness of breath and dry cough develop, the disease has probably already progressed.

The diagnostic process includes a comprehensive clinical exam, X-rays and lung function tests. If there are risk factors for ILD or abnormal X-ray findings, your doctor will likely perform a high resolution CT.

Treatment of Interstitial Lung Disease

Interstitial lung disease is hard to treat and has a high mortality rate. According to a 2010 study published in the journal Arthritis Rheumatism. once ILD was diagnosed, the average survival in patients with RA was 2.6 years.

People diagnosed with ILD in its early stages can be helped with medication such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants and put on the waiting list for a lung transplant sooner. However, these treatments don t work for everyone. The best approach is to treat the underlying RA, although ILD may get worse despite well controlled arthritis.

Future Direction in Interstitial Lung Disease

Researchers say an important task for the medical community is to understand the mechanisms behind the development of ILD in people with RA. More detailed knowledge of these processes may one day open doors to better treatments.

Also needed are comprehensive guidelines for screening and diagnosing ILD in at-risk patients so they can be found and treated earlier.

How Can You Protect Your Lungs?

Don t smoke. Get flu and pneumonia vaccines (but always check with your doctor before getting any vaccinations). If you re taking immunosuppressant medications for your RA, you may be at a higher risk for illnesses like the flu and pneumonia, which may cause further lung-related complications. Have regular check-ups, so your doctor can monitor your lungs regularly. Tell your doctor if you have shortness of breath or dry cough right away.

Updated May 2015

Want to read more? Subscribe Now to Arthritis Today !


Interstitial Lung Disease Arthritis #interstitial #lung #disease #rheumatoid #arthritis, #ild, #ra, #ild


#

RA and Lung Disease: What You Need to Know

Besides the joints, the inflammatory process that underlies rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also affects other parts of the body, including lungs, skin, eyes, digestive system, heart and blood vessels. RA-related lung complications are the most common extra-articular ( outside of the joints ) manifestations of RA and include pulmonary nodules (small growths in the lungs); pleural effusion (a buildup of fluid between the lung and chest wall); bronchiectasis (damage to the airways); and interstitial lung disease (ILD).

In fact, it is estimated that 1 in 10 people with rheumatoid arthritis will develop ILD over the course of their disease, making it as deadly among people with RA as congestive heart failure.

What Is Interstitial Lung Disease?

Interstitial lung disease refers to a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue. In the case of RA-associated ILD, the scarring is caused when the over-active immune system attacks the lungs. When the scarring builds up over time, breathing becomes difficult, and patients may need lung transplants to regain function.

Risk Factors for Interstitial Lung Disease

The risk of developing lung disease is eight times higher in people with RA than in the general population. However, most people with RA are not affected. Risk factors for ILD include:

  • Smoking. People with RA who smoke are more likely to develop ILD.

Higher RA disease activity. High levels of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides (antiCCP) antibodies substances that are indicative of more active disease increase the risk for development of ILD.

Older age at diagnosis. People who are diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis after age 60 are more likely to develop ILD.

Male Gender. Men with RA have a two-to-three times higher risk of developing ILD than women.

Treatment with methotrexate and other DMARDs. Several DMARDs, including methotrexate, leflunomide and azathioprine, as well as biologics, particularly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, have been associated with RA-ILD, according to a literature review published in the April 2014 issue of Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. But Dr. Teng Moua, a pulmonologist specializing in ILD at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. says the risk of methotrexate-induced lung injury is less than 1 percent and is reversible once the drug is stopped. According to Dr. Moua, the benefits of methotrexate far outweigh its risks. However, methotrexate is not recommended for people with existing ILD or RA-ILD by the American College of Rheumatology in their 2012 guidelines.

Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Disease

It is challenging to catch ILD early because it doesn t cause any specific symptoms. Once shortness of breath and dry cough develop, the disease has probably already progressed.

The diagnostic process includes a comprehensive clinical exam, X-rays and lung function tests. If there are risk factors for ILD or abnormal X-ray findings, your doctor will likely perform a high resolution CT.

Treatment of Interstitial Lung Disease

Interstitial lung disease is hard to treat and has a high mortality rate. According to a 2010 study published in the journal Arthritis Rheumatism. once ILD was diagnosed, the average survival in patients with RA was 2.6 years.

People diagnosed with ILD in its early stages can be helped with medication such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants and put on the waiting list for a lung transplant sooner. However, these treatments don t work for everyone. The best approach is to treat the underlying RA, although ILD may get worse despite well controlled arthritis.

Future Direction in Interstitial Lung Disease

Researchers say an important task for the medical community is to understand the mechanisms behind the development of ILD in people with RA. More detailed knowledge of these processes may one day open doors to better treatments.

Also needed are comprehensive guidelines for screening and diagnosing ILD in at-risk patients so they can be found and treated earlier.

How Can You Protect Your Lungs?

Don t smoke. Get flu and pneumonia vaccines (but always check with your doctor before getting any vaccinations). If you re taking immunosuppressant medications for your RA, you may be at a higher risk for illnesses like the flu and pneumonia, which may cause further lung-related complications. Have regular check-ups, so your doctor can monitor your lungs regularly. Tell your doctor if you have shortness of breath or dry cough right away.

Updated May 2015

Want to read more? Subscribe Now to Arthritis Today !