IBM SPSS Statistics Standard #ibm #spss #statistics #standard, #statistical #analysis #software, #linear

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IBM SPSS Statistics Standard

Fundamental analytical capabilities for a range of business and research questions

The IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition offers the core statistical procedures business managers and analysts need to address fundamental business and research questions. This software provides tools that allow users to quickly view data, formulate hypotheses for additional testing, and carry out procedures to clarify relationships between variables, create clusters, identify trends and make predictions.

The IBM SPSS Statistics Standard edition includes the following key capabilities:

  • Linear models offer a variety of regression and advanced statistical procedures designed to fit the inherent characteristics of data describing complex relationships.
  • Nonlinear models provide the ability to apply more sophisticated models to data.
  • Geospatial analytics techniques enable users to integrate, explore and model location and time data.
  • Simulation capabilities help analysts automatically model many possible outcomes when inputs are uncertain, improving risk analysis and decision making.
  • Customized tables enable users to easily understand their data and quickly summarize results in different styles for different audiences.

Landing Page

A redesigned landing page makes it easy to find the SPSS Statistics features you need quickly.

Style Output UI

Use conditional formatting to highlight cell background and text within tables based on the cell value.

Style Output

Draw attention to specific results by applying attributes such as color to individual table cells or rows.

Web Report

View interactive SPSS Statistics reports via your web browser from smartphones and tablets, including iPhone, iPad, iPod, Windows and Android devices.

Heat Map

Monte Carlo simulation enables you to generate heat maps automatically when displaying scatterplots in which the target, the input or both are categorical.

E-Commerce Advantages #e-commerce #overview, #e-commerce #applications, #e-commerce #constraints, #e-commerce #business #models, #e-commerce

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E-Commerce – Advantages

E-Commerce advantages can be broadly classified in three major categories:

Advantages to Organizations

Using E-Commerce, organization can expand their market to national and international markets with minimum capital investment. An organization can easily locate more customers, best suppliers and suitable business partners across the globe.

E-Commerce helps organization to reduce the cost to create process, distribute, retrieve and manage the paper based information by digitizing the information.

E-commerce improves the brand image of the company.

E-commerce helps organization to provide better customer services.

E-Commerce helps to simplify the business processes and make them faster and efficient.

E-Commerce reduces paper work a lot.

E-Commerce increased the productivity of the organization. It supports “pull” type supply management. In “pull” type supply management, a business process starts when a request comes from a customer and it uses just-in-time manufacturing way.

Advantages to Customers

24×7 support. Customer can do transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company any time, any where from any location. Here 24×7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a week.

E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products.

E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and better option.

A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy.

E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks.

E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations provides substantial discounts to customers.

Advantages to Society

Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution.

E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the products.

E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are otherwise not available to them.

E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social services at reduced cost and in improved way.

Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models #book #hotel #room

#what is health care

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Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models

An excerpt from correspondent T.R. Reid s upcoming book on international health care, titled We re Number 37!, referring to the U.S. s ranking in the World Health Organization 2000 World Health Report. The book is scheduled to be published by Penguin Press in early 2009.

There are about 200 countries on our planet, and each country devises its own set of arrangements for meeting the three basic goals of a health care system: keeping people healthy, treating the sick, and protecting families against financial ruin from medical bills.

But we don t have to study 200 different systems to get a picture of how other countries manage health care. For all the local variations, health care systems tend to follow general patterns. There are four basic systems:

The Beveridge Model

Named after William Beveridge, the daring social reformer who designed Britain s National Health Service. In this system, health care is provided and financed by the government through tax payments, just like the police force or the public library.

Many, but not all, hospitals and clinics are owned by the government; some doctors are government employees, but there are also private doctors who collect their fees from the government. In Britain, you never get a doctor bill. These systems tend to have low costs per capita, because the government, as the sole payer, controls what doctors can do and what they can charge.

Countries using the Beveridge plan or variations on it include its birthplace Great Britain, Spain, most of Scandinavia and New Zealand. Hong Kong still has its own Beveridge-style health care, because the populace simply refused to give it up when the Chinese took over that former British colony in 1997. Cuba represents the extreme application of the Beveridge approach; it is probably the world s purest example of total government control.

The Bismarck Model

Named for the Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who invented the welfare state as part of the unification of Germany in the 19th century. Despite its European heritage, this system of providing health care would look fairly familiar to Americans. It uses an insurance system the insurers are called sickness funds usually financed jointly by employers and employees through payroll deduction.

Unlike the U.S. insurance industry, though, Bismarck-type health insurance plans have to cover everybody, and they don t make a profit. Doctors and hospitals tend to be private in Bismarck countries; Japan has more private hospitals than the U.S. Although this is a multi-payer model Germany has about 240 different funds tight regulation gives government much of the cost-control clout that the single-payer Beveridge Model provides.

The Bismarck model is found in Germany, of course, and France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Japan, Switzerland, and, to a degree, in Latin America.

The National Health Insurance Model

This system has elements of both Beveridge and Bismarck. It uses private-sector providers, but payment comes from a government-run insurance program that every citizen pays into. Since there s no need for marketing, no financial motive to deny claims and no profit, these universal insurance programs tend to be cheaper and much simpler administratively than American-style for-profit insurance.

The single payer tends to have considerable market power to negotiate for lower prices; Canada s system, for example, has negotiated such low prices from pharmaceutical companies that Americans have spurned their own drug stores to buy pills north of the border. National Health Insurance plans also control costs by limiting the medical services they will pay for, or by making patients wait to be treated.

The classic NHI system is found in Canada, but some newly industrialized countries Taiwan and South Korea, for example have also adopted the NHI model.

The Out-of-Pocket Model

Only the developed, industrialized countries perhaps 40 of the world s 200 countries have established health care systems. Most of the nations on the planet are too poor and too disorganized to provide any kind of mass medical care. The basic rule in such countries is that the rich get medical care; the poor stay sick or die.

In rural regions of Africa, India, China and South America, hundreds of millions of people go their whole lives without ever seeing a doctor. They may have access, though, to a village healer using home-brewed remedies that may or not be effective against disease.

In the poor world, patients can sometimes scratch together enough money to pay a doctor bill; otherwise, they pay in potatoes or goat s milk or child care or whatever else they may have to give. If they have nothing, they don t get medical care.

These four models should be fairly easy for Americans to understand because we have elements of all of them in our fragmented national health care apparatus. When it comes to treating veterans, we re Britain or Cuba. For Americans over the age of 65 on Medicare, we re Canada. For working Americans who get insurance on the job, we re Germany.

For the 15 percent of the population who have no health insurance, the United States is Cambodia or Burkina Faso or rural India, with access to a doctor available if you can pay the bill out-of-pocket at the time of treatment or if you re sick enough to be admitted to the emergency ward at the public hospital.

The United States is unlike every other country because it maintains so many separate systems for separate classes of people. All the other countries have settled on one model for everybody. This is much simpler than the U.S. system; it s fairer and cheaper, too.

Note – Reid s Beveridge model corresponds to what PNHP would call a single payer national health service (UK); Bismark model refers to countries that PNHP would say use non-profit sickness funds or a social insurance model (Germany); and National health insurance corresponds to single payer national health insurance (Canada, Taiwan). Reid s out-of-pocket model is what PNHP would call market driven health care. Some countries have mixed models (e.g. Sweden has some features of a national health service such as hospitals run by county government; but other features of national health insurance such as physicians being paid on a FFS basis). This explains why Reid might classify the Scandinavian systems as Beveridge while PNHP classifies them as single payer national health insurance.





Cloud computing service models, Part 1: Infrastructure as a Service #cloud #computing,

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Infrastructure as a Service

Software as an asset (business and consumer)

SLAs; UI powered by thin-client applications; cloud components; communication via APIs; stateless; loosely coupled; modular; semantic interoperability

Thin client; client-server application

Avoid capital expenditure on software and development resources; reduced ROI risk; streamlined and iterative updates

Centralization of data requires new/different security measures

Primary facets of IaaS

Rather than imagining the Internet as a single global cloud, it is perhaps more accurate to imagine it as a system of many clouds, like a thunderstorm. With this metaphor, it could be logically asserted that lightning is the weather system equivalent of communication among clouds. This metaphor is perhaps more accurate in the sense that clouds systematically interact with each other to create a single result: the Internet.

It is unlikely that the Internet will be made up of one single cloud at least in the near future because of the lack of standards in cloud computing and obvious attempts by companies to capitalize long term through vendor lock-in. Nevertheless, cloud computing would not have advanced to where it is currently if it weren’t for innovation in the spirit of capitalism. Perhaps one day, the Internet really will be a single, interconnected cloud in which VMs could be transferred effortlessly to “the cloud” without concern for file format and interconnected clusters of VMs could be managed across service providers, all through a single interface. But that day is a long way off. In the meantime, we’ll speak of the Internet as consisting of many clouds. (Ironically, I’m using the Apple MobileMe cloud to store this article so I can work on it on across several devices.)

Meet the elastic infrastructure

Elasticity is the first critical facet of IaaS. To illustrate the concept of elasticity, I’m going to require you to use your imagination for a moment. Pretend that clouds are actually made of marshmallow clusters stuck together so that people can sit and ride on them. Each marshmallow cloud can hold a certain number of people, depending on the number of marshmallow clusters that make up the cloud and how many marshmallows are contained in those clusters. As more people get on to ride the marshmallow cloud, you can expand the marshmallow clusters by sticking more marshmallows to them, increasing the surface area. As you have probably already figured out, the people represent the applications that require compute resources, such as those that host Web sites and run software services. The marshmallow clusters represent clusters of VMs, with each marshmallow a VM.

Although this might sound like something you’d expect to find in a Dr. Seuss book, it provides a means of understanding a concept considered by many a dark art: elastic clustering. Clustering of physical servers to form a virtual cloud is a concept known as cloud clustering, and if it is in fact a dark art, then mastery is measured by the scalability of an artist’s system design.

Let’s look at an example. Say that you’re a statistical researcher working for the U.S. government. The government is a bit short-handed, and you’ve just been tasked with compiling all the data from the latest U.S. census. You’re responsible for formulating the necessary statistical data so that Congress can make important decisions regarding the allocation of economic recovery funds and tax dollars three days from now. Needless to say, this is a pretty important job, and you’re on a bit of a time crunch. What’s more, the amount of data you must process is astronomical, and you just found out that the compute resources required to compile it is going to take the IT department three weeks to get ready!

This is exactly the kind of problem that you can easily mitigate using IaaS. As a matter of fact, using IaaS, you could have the entire U.S. census data analysis completed within an hour. You’d start by creating a single instance of a server that contains the database software to run queries on the data. This is called an image.

After you deploy the image and import the data into the database, you could then duplicate that image as many times as necessary and start running your data-processing tasks. While the tasks are running, you might manually or automatically add and remove resources. For example, if the compute tasks were not running quickly enough, simply add more duplicate machine instances to the cluster.

Now that you understand the concept of elasticity, let’s take a look at the second major facet of IaaS: virtualization.

Machine virtualization

Sergey Brin and Larry Page, the founders of Google, had the right idea back in 1995 when they spent their evenings sifting through dumpsters behind Stanford University’s computer science building, pulling out disregarded computer parts. They’d bring these random x86-based computer parts back to their dorm room to add to the Frankenstein machine hosting the legendary rogue Web crawler that took down Stanford’s entire network twice.

Today, it is estimated that Google has more than 1 million x86 servers in 12 major data centers and about 20 smaller centers on different continents. That’s a pretty big cloud. Two key factors to the system design allowed them to scale the dorm-room beast in 1995, and it still holds true for the million-plus servers in the Google network today. To this day, Google continues to use inexpensive x86 parts instead of the much more expensive enterprise server components found in many corporate data centers. Second, failover, redundancy, monitoring, clustering, and other infrastructure management tasks are handled by a virtualization system that runs beneath the operating system level rather than using separate hardware such as load balancers to handle such tasks.

IaaS is easy to spot, because it is typically platform-independent. IaaS consists of a combination of hardware and software resources. IaaS software is low-level code that runs independent of an operating system called a hypervisor and is responsible for taking inventory of hardware resources and allocating said resources based on demand (see Figure 1 ). This process is referred to as resource pooling. Resource pooling by the hypervisor makes virtualization possible, and virtualization makes multi-tenant computing possible a concept that refers to an infrastructure shared by several organizations with similar interests in regard to security requirements and compliance considerations.

Figure 1. The relationship among VMs, the hypervisor, and the computer

With IaaS, you have the capability to provision processing, storage, networks, and other computing resources, where you can deploy and run arbitrary software such as operating systems and applications. Most use cases for cloud computing follow the same fundamental layering structure you are already used to: a software solution stack or platform is deployed on a network infrastructure, and applications are run on top of the platform. However, virtualization makes the cloud paradigm unique.

Conclusion

In this article, you learned about many of the basic principles of cloud computing as well as the anatomy of IaaS and how it might be used in a real-world situation. The second article in this series will dive into the second major classification of cloud computing: PaaS. In the meantime, check out the Related topics section for links to more information on IaaS.

Downloadable resources

Related topics

Replacing the final stage unit # #replacing #the #final #stage #unit/blower #motor

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Does your A/C-heater blower seem like it’s possessed? Does it quit working for no apparent reason, then come on again just as mysteriously? Does it run only at one speed no matter what the controls say? Does it keep running even when the car is off and the key is out of the ignition? Your problem is most likely a faulty final stage unit.

Based on what I’ve seen here and elsewhere, this is a chronic problem with the E39, but fortunately it’s a relatively cheap and easy fix. There’s a good DIY here. but since questions about it get posted here with regular frequency, I figured it would be a good idea to post one here too. Some of the photos in this post are very large because it’s very helpful to see the details if you have no idea what’s going on here.

BMW calls this thing the “final stage unit;” the parts guys call it a “blower motor resistor.” I’m not sure what the reason for the different terminology is, but it’s the same part. The PNs have changed a couple of times over the years, but as of the date of this posting, what you want is PN 64 11 6 923 204 and there’s a diagram of the system here. As far as I can tell, the same part is used in all E39 models (but you may want to confirm this). Bavarian Autosport has them for about $70, but they’re unfortunately available a lot of places, including the parts counter of your local dealership (I say “unfortunately” because it’s a reflection of how often this thing fails).

For some reason, dealer service departments are notorious for not being able to recognize this issue, and may charge you for hundreds or thousands of dollars of unnecessary repairs without solving the problem. If you don’t feel confident doing this yourself (i.e. you’re the sort of person who is more likely to take an eye out with a screwdriver than a screw), at least bring them this information. Done properly, this is a 15-minute,

This is what you’re replacing:

The silver part of it is a heat sink. I’m not an electrical engineer, but I believe this thing allows the blower controls to change the speed of the blower by altering the current that passes through it. Inside is a bundle of resistors, and by sending the current through a different combination of leads, it creates the proper current to operate the blower at a desired speed. But resistors generate heat (thus the need for a heat sink), and over time, I suspect the constant heat up-cool down cycle degrades the resistors until they no longer produce the right current, and the controller can no longer send the right signals to the blower. Thus, the blower starts acting strangely despite what the controls are doing.

Now, I’ve read a lot of horror stories about how difficult this replacement can be, but I didn’t find it that way at all. This is an extremely simple operation that took me less than 10 minutes. The hardest part was getting myself into a position where I could get at the faulty FSU.

All you need here is a Phillips screwdriver, a flashlight (the one in your glovebox will work fine) and understanding that you’re working with electrical components, not mechanical ones. That means being mindful of how much force you’re using. Nothing in this operation requires any great effort, so if you find yourself needing force things, you’re doing something wrong.

The FSU is behind the dash in the passenger side footwell. You’ll find it easier to work if you pull out the cover under the glovebox. It’s not secured by anything, so just yank it out. The FSU is behind a fabric covered plastic panel on the left side:

You want to unscrew the screw (red circle), then slide the panel backward (see arrow), not out. It’s also held in place by two metal clips that attach to the frame behind it:

Once you’ve got the panel out, lay on your back and look up at the space you’ve just exposed. The FSU is inside there.

Inside the space, you’ll see a plug with 5 colored wires coming out of it. The FSU is the thing the plug is connected to, so you’ve got to get the plug out. The plug is held in place by two clips on the side, and you need to squeeze the clips to free it.

You may find the plug a bit difficult to get out; if so, just wiggle it back and forth until it comes free. Don’t yank it out–you may break one of the wires loose, in which case you’ve just bought yourself an expensive and embarrassing trip to the dealer.

The FSU is itself held in place by another clip at the bottom. You need to push this clip down at the same time you’re pulling the FSU out.

Again, if you’re doing it right, you should not need to force anything. Once free of the clip, the FSU should slide out easily.

You may find all of this easier if you lay on your back in the footwell to get your bearings, then sit up straight, reach under the dash, and do it “by feel.”

Now, surprise, surprise, the part you’ve just removed won’t resemble the new one exactly, since as I mentioned, the PNs have changed a couple of times:

Hmm, could this be because the original version was defective?

Now just slide the new one in the spot the old one came out of. It should slide into place with a “snap” as the clip engages it.

New FSU in place. Note orientation–it will only go in one way. If you’re having trouble getting it in, you’ve probably got it rotated 90 or 180 degrees out of alignment.

Replace the plug, then slide the panel back in the way it came out. Be sure to get both clips into their respective slots, or it will hang loose. Replace the screw.

If you’ve done everything right, your blower should operate normally now. If it’s not, go back in and check the connections. If everything looks right but it still doesn’t work, you may have other problems.

Thank’s for the instructions, my wife has a 2003 530i with 54K miles and her blower stopped working entirely. Here’s a little story.

The A/C stopped blowing air and I hadn’t gotten the BMW manual for it yet so I took it in to the dealership and I figured it would probably just be a simple electrical relay .
They called my wife back telling her ;

1) $440 to fix the blower,
2) The A/C wasn’t as cold as it should be and they needed to replace the dryer – $790
3) The plastic components (bushings) of her suspension were cracking and they could fail if she hit a pothole – $825
4) Her fuel filter needed to be replaces – $325
5) They recommended a fuel injector cleaning – $350
6) Her tires were feathering and she needed a 4 wheel alignment – $350

I went online and found your instructions on how to replace the blower relay. It took 15 minutes to replace and cost $100 for the part. Everything works fine and all the other items were BS not to mention 2 to 3 times what they should be charging for the services.

For once crime didn’t pay.

Oh yeah I forgot, they charged her $135 to tell her how they were going to rip her off. I ordered the manuals yesterday.

Last edited by plockj; 07-19-2006 at 11:45 AM.

07-30-2006, 11:51 AM

Thanks for the great post! I was amazed at the detailed instructions on replacing the FSU.

08-04-2006, 02:40 PM

Thanks a million. Saved me a fortune. I hate to think what the stealership would have charged me. Regards UK member.

08-16-2006, 03:54 PM

Thank you. Saved me from replacing the climate control unit unnessarily (Had a similar problem on my E36 M3 that was the unit). After reading your description, I replaced the unit in under 15 mins with no fuss or drama. It really was nice knowing the details without having to go “diving” under the dash in 90 degree weather.

Build Your Nissan #nissan, #build #your #own #car, #car #prices, #car #models,

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Include Electric
( MPGe )

MY13 EPA Fuel Economy Estimate 129 city, 102 Highway. Based on EPA formula of 33.7 kW/hour equal to one gallon of gasoline energy, EPA rated the LEAF equivalent to 129 MPG measured as gasoline fuel efficiency in city driving, and 102 MPG in highway driving. Actual mileage may vary with driving conditions – use for comparison only. MY13 EPA range of 75 miles.

We apologize. There are no available results for the criteria you have entered.
Please revise your search or Reset Filter(s) to view additional vehicles.

‘*Price represents the Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSRP). Price excludes environmental excise fees (where applicable), freight, PDE, air and tire levies, license, registration, insurance, duties, and applicable taxes. Dealer may charge additional administration fees, which may vary by dealer. Dealership may sell for less. Equipment, specifications and price are subject to change without notice. Provincial EV incentives up to $14,000 (before-tax) are available in certain provinces. Where applicable, provincial EV incentives are applied to the before-tax value of the Nissan LEAF. Please consult your provincial government or local Nissan dealer for details and pricing specific to your region.

†Price represents the Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSRP) plus freight and PDI, as well as all other applicable fees, levies and duties. Price excludes license, registration, insurance and applicable taxes. Dealer may charge additional administration fees, which may vary by dealer. Dealership may sell for less. Equipment, specifications and price are subject to change without notice.

Dealer contribution is included in the discounts where applicable.

Payment results are estimates and are used for illustrative purposes only. Many variables will affect your monthly payment. This estimator is not an advertisement, solicitation, credit application or offer for any specific terms of sale price or credit and is not an offer for direct sale, financing or leasing. You should see your local Nissan Dealer for actual terms and conditions. See your Nissan Dealer to help determine your actual monthly payments including title, taxes, license and other fees, based on the exact selling price, lease or financing terms, credit history, trade-in appraisal, down payment and special offers.

References to “financing” on this website refer to indirect lending originated by your participating Nissan Dealer through Nissan Canada Financial Services.

Nissan has taken care to ensure that the digital colour swatches presented here are the closest possible representation of actual vehicle colours. Swatches may vary slightly due to viewing light or screen quality. Please see the actual vehicle and colours at your local Nissan dealer.

Inventory shown and vehicle built on this website may not be available. Contact Dealer for details regarding Dealer’s current inventory available for purchase or lease.

Master Certified Coach Short Course #behavioral #change #coaching, #master #certified #coach, #coach

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For the last twenty years, the Institute has indisputably been a leader in the development of the coaching profession .

As the world�s most recognized brand in behavioral change coach training their graduates receive instant kudos and respect. BCI develop proprietary behavioral change models and coaching tools (not source it) and they advise many of the companies who are world leaders in the application of the coaching model of learning and change. AND, that means their curriculum is always far more advanced, up-to-date and practice oriented than any other.
ICAA -Centre for International Education, Annual Report, 2016

Pioneers of the Coaching field .
Dr Perry Zeus (BCI’s Founder and current Chairman) is cited as one of the primary originators and influencers in the development of the coaching discipline in the first academic text book written on the History of Coaching.
– ‘Grounded Theory of the Roots and Emergence of Coaching’ by Dr. V Brock 2009. International
University of Professional Studies.

As cited in
Brain science research has significant implications for coaching. When professionals look at coaching from an investment perspective, they want scientifically proven methodology such as behavior based coaching provided by the Behavioral Coaching Institute .

Invitational Master Certified Coach Course
-with specialist Distance Learning Programs
-Accelerated Credentialing Program for qualified, busy, professional people developers
– No ADD-ON coach training hours, mentor coaching
or coaching log required.

– Learn via our exclusive Fast-Tracked course how to use the latest coaching methodology to help people fulfil their potential and live a more satisfying, happier, healthier life Read more

– E-Learning, Blended Learning, Videoconference or Campus Format.

– Full Certification gained upon course completion. No ‘extras’!

No assessment, post-course supervision or additional

training hours is required as this is an invitational Program for professionals. ( via submission of Course Application Form )

-F or busy at work professionals. from HR, Executive Development and a wide range of other specialist fields who require the latest scientifically proven coaching tools and best practices that generate sustainable, measurable behavior change

Dr. Suzanne Skiffington (BCI Founding Partner)
Let him who would move the world first move himself.


Registered as an Education provider from the State Board of Behavioral Sciences, California.
Founding Board Member of International Coaching Council


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Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models #hospice #facility

#what is health care

#

Health Care Systems – Four Basic Models

An excerpt from correspondent T.R. Reid s upcoming book on international health care, titled We re Number 37!, referring to the U.S. s ranking in the World Health Organization 2000 World Health Report. The book is scheduled to be published by Penguin Press in early 2009.

There are about 200 countries on our planet, and each country devises its own set of arrangements for meeting the three basic goals of a health care system: keeping people healthy, treating the sick, and protecting families against financial ruin from medical bills.

But we don t have to study 200 different systems to get a picture of how other countries manage health care. For all the local variations, health care systems tend to follow general patterns. There are four basic systems:

The Beveridge Model

Named after William Beveridge, the daring social reformer who designed Britain s National Health Service. In this system, health care is provided and financed by the government through tax payments, just like the police force or the public library.

Many, but not all, hospitals and clinics are owned by the government; some doctors are government employees, but there are also private doctors who collect their fees from the government. In Britain, you never get a doctor bill. These systems tend to have low costs per capita, because the government, as the sole payer, controls what doctors can do and what they can charge.

Countries using the Beveridge plan or variations on it include its birthplace Great Britain, Spain, most of Scandinavia and New Zealand. Hong Kong still has its own Beveridge-style health care, because the populace simply refused to give it up when the Chinese took over that former British colony in 1997. Cuba represents the extreme application of the Beveridge approach; it is probably the world s purest example of total government control.

The Bismarck Model

Named for the Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who invented the welfare state as part of the unification of Germany in the 19th century. Despite its European heritage, this system of providing health care would look fairly familiar to Americans. It uses an insurance system the insurers are called sickness funds usually financed jointly by employers and employees through payroll deduction.

Unlike the U.S. insurance industry, though, Bismarck-type health insurance plans have to cover everybody, and they don t make a profit. Doctors and hospitals tend to be private in Bismarck countries; Japan has more private hospitals than the U.S. Although this is a multi-payer model Germany has about 240 different funds tight regulation gives government much of the cost-control clout that the single-payer Beveridge Model provides.

The Bismarck model is found in Germany, of course, and France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Japan, Switzerland, and, to a degree, in Latin America.

The National Health Insurance Model

This system has elements of both Beveridge and Bismarck. It uses private-sector providers, but payment comes from a government-run insurance program that every citizen pays into. Since there s no need for marketing, no financial motive to deny claims and no profit, these universal insurance programs tend to be cheaper and much simpler administratively than American-style for-profit insurance.

The single payer tends to have considerable market power to negotiate for lower prices; Canada s system, for example, has negotiated such low prices from pharmaceutical companies that Americans have spurned their own drug stores to buy pills north of the border. National Health Insurance plans also control costs by limiting the medical services they will pay for, or by making patients wait to be treated.

The classic NHI system is found in Canada, but some newly industrialized countries Taiwan and South Korea, for example have also adopted the NHI model.

The Out-of-Pocket Model

Only the developed, industrialized countries perhaps 40 of the world s 200 countries have established health care systems. Most of the nations on the planet are too poor and too disorganized to provide any kind of mass medical care. The basic rule in such countries is that the rich get medical care; the poor stay sick or die.

In rural regions of Africa, India, China and South America, hundreds of millions of people go their whole lives without ever seeing a doctor. They may have access, though, to a village healer using home-brewed remedies that may or not be effective against disease.

In the poor world, patients can sometimes scratch together enough money to pay a doctor bill; otherwise, they pay in potatoes or goat s milk or child care or whatever else they may have to give. If they have nothing, they don t get medical care.

These four models should be fairly easy for Americans to understand because we have elements of all of them in our fragmented national health care apparatus. When it comes to treating veterans, we re Britain or Cuba. For Americans over the age of 65 on Medicare, we re Canada. For working Americans who get insurance on the job, we re Germany.

For the 15 percent of the population who have no health insurance, the United States is Cambodia or Burkina Faso or rural India, with access to a doctor available if you can pay the bill out-of-pocket at the time of treatment or if you re sick enough to be admitted to the emergency ward at the public hospital.

The United States is unlike every other country because it maintains so many separate systems for separate classes of people. All the other countries have settled on one model for everybody. This is much simpler than the U.S. system; it s fairer and cheaper, too.

Note – Reid s Beveridge model corresponds to what PNHP would call a single payer national health service (UK); Bismark model refers to countries that PNHP would say use non-profit sickness funds or a social insurance model (Germany); and National health insurance corresponds to single payer national health insurance (Canada, Taiwan). Reid s out-of-pocket model is what PNHP would call market driven health care. Some countries have mixed models (e.g. Sweden has some features of a national health service such as hospitals run by county government; but other features of national health insurance such as physicians being paid on a FFS basis). This explains why Reid might classify the Scandinavian systems as Beveridge while PNHP classifies them as single payer national health insurance.