Solar Water Heating System Basics #solar #power #magazine


What is Solar Water Heating?

What is Solar Water Heating?

Solar water heating collectors capture and retain heat from the sun and transfer this heat to a liquid. Solar thermal heat is trapped using the “greenhouse effect,” in this case is the ability of a reflective surface to transmit short wave radiation and reflect long wave radiation. Heat and infrared radiation (IR) are produced when short wave radiation light hits a collector’s absorber, which is then trapped inside the collector. Fluid, usually water, in contact with the absorber collects the trapped heat to transfer it to storage.

Two principles govern solar thermal collectors. First, any hot object eventually looses its heat back to the environment. The efficiency of a solar thermal collector is directly related to heat loss, mainly from convection and radiation. Thermal insulation is used to slow down heat loss from a hot object to its environment.

Second, heat loss is more rapid if the temperature difference between a hot object and its environment is larger, in this case between the temperature of the collector surface and the ambient temperature. (But the same goes for transferring heat from the collector to the fluid, a larger difference between the collector and the liquid, the more heat is transferred.)

The most basic approach to solar heating of water is to simply put a tank filled with water into the sun. The heat from the sun would heat the metal tank and the water inside. This was how the very first SWH systems worked more than a century ago. However, this setup would be inefficient because there is little to limit the heat loss from the tank. Adding an insulated box around the tank, and adding glass above the top where the sun comes in would do a lot to retain heat.

A more common collector is called a flat plate collector. It has a large, flat surface area (absorber) to maximize exposure to the sun, and has small tubes bonded to it. Fluid runs through the tubes, collecting the heat from the absorber. The sides and bottom of the collector are well-insulated, and glass on top completes the insulation.

This is quite simple, but there are some very technical factors involved in making the collector as efficient as possible. One is the coating on the absorber, which is specially formulated to both absorb as much heat as possible, and to radiate back out as little heat as possible. Another is the glass, which is high-iron and specially coated to let as much light energy as possible through and to also prevent as much heat loss as possible.

Another popular type of collector is called evacuated tube, which has a long, skinny absorber that is inside a glass tube. The tube has the air evacuated out of it, which makes it highly insulated—not too different from a thermos used to keep drinks hot.

The final type of collector is a parabolic dish or tray, which increases heat potential by concentrating sunlight onto a small absorber. These are very rare in home water heating systems, and more commonly used in utility-scale systems to create steam which runs turbines to make electricity.

The basic components in home solar heating systems include:

  • Collectors to take the heat from the sun and pass it to a fluid
  • The heat transfer fluid which takes the heat from the collector for use or storage
  • Heat exchangers to transfer the heat from the fluid to a home’s domestic water.
  • Pumps to move the fluid through the collector and/or the exchanger, and sometimes to move the domestic water through the other side of the exchanger.
  • Controllers to run the pumps when there is collector heat available.

Solar Energy News, Solar Technology – Information – Renewable Energy World, solar energy group.#Solar #energy #group


Solar Energy News Information


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The 6 Countries Leading on Renewable Energy, But Could Improve on Incentives, Regulatory Support

Recently released heat maps from Sustainable Energy for All identify countries and regions where improvements would i.

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Standoff Over Rates for Utah Solar Customers Reaches Settlement; Concessions Were ‘Painful’

According to Utah Clean Energy, a settlement agreement with Rocky Mountain Power in its rate case avoids a requested .

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The Perils of Being an Economist in the Energy Industry

Dr. Arvind Subramanian, chief economic advisor to the Government of India, delivered a terrible lecture on August 17.

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NREL, Swiss Scientists Power Past Solar Efficiency Records

Collaboration between researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the.

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New Legislation Could Support Clean Energy Career Pathways for Fossil-Fuel Industry Workers

Support for workers seeking to transition from jobs in the fossil-fuel industry to the clean energy sector .

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A Ribbon Cutting and a Sneak Peek — The Latest from Solar Decathlon 2017 Teams

Here are a couple of updates on teams competing in this year’s Solar Decathlon in Denver in October.

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Virtual Currency May Boost Australia’s Grassroots Solar Trade

An Australian company is introducing its own version of bitcoin that will let homeowners and businesses sell excess e.

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Hybrid Office Building Cuts Cord to Electricity Grid

A four-story office building powered by a combination of thermal and PV solar and wind energy in South Australia has .

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Listen Up: Energy Storage is the Home Appliance of the Future

Twenty years ago, the problem with rooftop solar was that customers needed a large collection of lead acid batteries .

Commercial Solar Panels – Projects #verengo #solar #fresno #ca


We’ve been engineering, constructing and maintaining solar power projects since 1980

Borrego Solar is a leading EPC and O M provider of large-scale solar solutions.

Commercial Utility-Scale Solar Specialists

Borrego Solar specializes in solar and energy storage services for commercial and utility customers. We partner with private and public large-scale energy users, landowners, independent power producers, and utilities in California, Massachusetts, and New York looking to harness the benefits of PV energy.

We provide a complete suite of services to large-scale solar customers including: Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC); Operations and Maintenance (O M), energy storage, Power Purchase Agreements, and development.

“When choosing an EPC or developer to work with, we focus on those that don’t just announce projects, but actually put steel in the ground. Borrego Solar comes with a unique combination of development, engineering, construction and finance experience that allows them to breathe new life into stranded mid-stage projects and turns them into high-value financeable assets that meet strict investment standards. Borrego Solar is a low-risk partner for independent power producers like sPower.

Ryan Creamer, CEO, sPower

Our Experienced Solar Project Teams Can Help

35+ Years · 1,100+ Projects Flexible Financing · Full Service

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Solar Power Wireless Megapixel IP Security Camera System SYSTEM-IP-SBC54AI31 #megapixel #security #camera #system, #solar #power #wireless #megapixel #ip #security #camera #system #system-ip-sbc54ai31


Solar Power Wireless Megapixel IP Security Camera System SYSTEM-IP-SBC54AI31

The A1 Solar Powered Wireless Megapixel IP Security Camera System SYSTEM-IP-SBC54AI31 is a intelligent system designed to be deployed for remote video surveillance to distant areas of properties and facilities. The SYSTEM-IP-SBC54AI31 provides 1.3 Megapixel Resolution, True Day/Night with IR Night vision capabilities, two Way Audio, I/O Digital inputs and outputs for an array of integration and application possibilities. It is also supported by the majority of industry leading IP Surveillance NVR platforms. Communication is achieved by utilizing a Long Range industrial grade LOS (Line of Sight) wireless network link (Master and Client integrated radio) featuring Dual Band support, various encryption methods and wireless standards. This Link provides the solar system high speed connection for real-time communication between the remote surveillance site and the command center up to several miles away. SYSTEM-IP-SBC54AI31 is designed as a stand alone Solar Powered Security Camera System featuring a 4-Day Battery reserve including* camera, enclosures, mounting equipment and weatherproof design. The A1 Solar SYSTEM-IP-SBC54AI31 is a flexible system allowing for various configurations, customization and options. We recommend you contact our Surveillance Experts to ensure you are getting the proper configuration for your Solar IP Security Camera System.*

A1 Solar SYSTEM-IP-SBC54AI31 Features:

  • 1.3 Megapixel Resolution integrated Infrared IP Camera
  • Long Range LOS Wireless Client and Master Network Bridge
  • Completely Stand Alone Solar Power Camera System w/ 4+ Day Battery reserve
  • Supports Two Way Audio and I/O Configurations
  • Weatherproof Rated Construction w/ IP66 and NEMA3R Ratings
  • Rated for Solar Regions 3.0 and above as is.
  • Customized Options Available for NLOS etc.
  • High Quality Brand Name IP Security Camera, Wireless Link, Solar Module, Mounting and Power Equipment.

Its best to consult our Experts to ensure you are receiving the proper Configuration to support your Application and/or Environment*

  • Special Order System
  • Some Assembly Required,
  • Pole Not Included.
  • Please Inquire for Fully Pre Built ready to place systems.*

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We made it convenient. If you’re not in a hurry, we offer free ground shipping to the Contiguous United States.

We are here to help put together any system, any project for you. We’ve worked with thousands of customers from different industries. Government entities, law enforcement, schools, gas stations, warehouse, hospitals, hotels, casinos, tollway authorities, barn owners, cannabis farms, metal yards, construction companies, high end home owners, you name it. We are here to help with our experts. We’re like the Home Depot of security cameras with experts ready to answer any questions you might have.

Everything we sell is brand-new, factory sealed, and covered by a full manufacturer warranty.

Solar Leasing in Singapore – how it works #solar #power #leasing


Solar Leasing

You only pay for the solar electricity kilowatt-hours you consume.

Solar Leasing is a unique solution intended to help you financially when you consider the required capital investment in your plant too large. In this offer you can benefit from zero investment. We design and build the plant either on your roof(s), car park or even on the large abandoned land you own at our cost. You only agree to buy the solar electricity the plant generates and pay for every kilowatts-hour (kWh).

In addition to reducing your electricity bill per month, you can now convert your fixed investment cost into an affordable lease per month for the solar electricity your plant generates.

While your grid electricity tariff rises frequently, Solareo promises you a discounted tariff for solar electricity for over 20 years, so you save thousands of dollars your business needs. Solareo owns, operates, maintains your plant and bears all the risk of electricity production. What more – you own your plant back after the end of the contract.

* Sources SP Services public tariff for high tension small (HTS) supply Singapore Jan 2014

Refer the example below to understand your savings better

  • Lease your roof or land to Solareo for 20 years – sign a long term lease. Solareo needs this mortgage only for the volume of the roof, to secure its presence on the roof during these 20+ years to operate the plant
  • Sign Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) for 20+ years
  • Allow Solareo technician(s) to come regularly on the roof for maintenance of the plant

To learn more about solar leasing, please refer to an interesting article on Solareo’s blog here

If you have a project idea or have a land or roof to estimate and you want to reduce your electricity cost without need for heavy upfront investment, solar leasing is for you please don’t hesitate to contact us and our engineers will contact you within 48 hours to understand your requirement.


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Our Sun – Astronomy For Kids #stars #in #our #solar #system


Our Sun is not unique in the universe. It is a common middle-sized yellow star which scientists have named Sol, after the ancient Roman name. This is why our system of planets is called the Solar System. There are trillions of other stars in the universe just like it. Many of these stars have their own systems of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets.

The Sun was born in a vast cloud of gas and dust around 5 billion years ago. Indeed, these vast nebulae are the birth places of all stars. Over a period of many millions of years, this gas and dust began to fall into a common center under the force of its own gravity.

At the center, an ever growing body of mass was forming. As the matter fell inward, it generated a tremendous amount of heat and pressure. As it grew, the baby Sun became hotter and hotter. Eventually, when it reached a temperature of around 1 million degrees, its core ignited, causing it to begin nuclear fusion.

When this happened, the Sun began producing its own light, heat, and energy.

What is Thermonuclear Fusion?

Thermonuclear fusion is the process in which a star produce its light, heat, and energy. This happens at the core of the star. The core is superheated to millions of degrees. This heat travels towards the surface and radiates out into the universe. Through this thermonuclear process, stars burn a fuel known as hydrogen. The result is that they create another type of fuel known as helium. However, stars do not burn in the same way that a fire does, because stars are not on fire.

Heat rises, while cooler gas falls. Have you ever noticed that your basement is always much cooler than upstairs. The same laws of physics apply within stars. Because heat rises while cooler gases fall, the gas within a star is constantly rising and falling. This creates massive streams of circular motion within the star. This is called convection.

As the gases near the core of the Sun are heated, they begin to rise towards the surface. As they do so, they cool somewhat. Eventually they become cool enough that they begin to sink back down towards the core. It can take an atom millions of years to complete one complete cycle around a convection stream. As a result of this process, the temperature on the surface of the Sun is around 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit, which is much cooler than its superheated core.

We don’t often think of the Sun as having cooler areas on its surface. The Sun is far too hot for an astronaut to ever visit, but there are areas which are slightly cooler than others. These areas are known as sun spots. Sun spots are still very hot. However, because they are slightly cooler than the rest of the surface of the Sun, they appear slightly darker in color. The gravitational forces in Sun spots are also stronger than the other hotter areas. Of course, you cannot look directly at the Sun to see these spots because you would damage your eyes. Astronomers have to use special telescopes with filters and other instruments to be able to see the cooler spots on the surface of the Sun.

Sun spots come and go on a regular basis. At times, there are very few, if any sun spots. At other times there are far more. They generally increase in intensity and then decrease over a period of 11 years. This 11 year cycle is known as the Saros Cycle. To learn more, click here.

During periods of high solar activity, the Sun commonly releases massive amounts of gas and plasma into its atmosphere. These ejections are known as solar flares. Some solar flares can be truly massive, and contain impressive power. On occasion, these more powerful flares can even cause satellites orbiting the Earth to malfunction. They can also interact with Earth’s magnetic field to create impressive and beautiful light shows known as the Northern and Southern lights. In the northern hemisphere, these lights are commonly known as the Aurora Borealis.

As the Sun burns hydrogen at its core, it releases vast amounts of atomic particles, or pieces of atoms, into outer space. These atomic particles along with the Sun’s radiation create a sort of wind, known as the solar wind.

This wind blows particles outward in all directions from the Sun. Even as you read this, there are atomic particles which are traveling from the Sun towards you. Often, particles pass right through your body without you ever realizing it.

Eventually this wind reaches out beyond the Solar System and begins to mix with the winds from other stars. The bubble around the Sun where the solar winds are still strong enough to blow outward is known as the heliosphere (note the Greek name Helios). The area of space where the winds are too weak to continue pushing outward and instead begin to mix with the winds of other stars is known as the interstellar medium.

The Sun’s Family

The Sun is by far the largest object in the Solar System. 98% of all matter within the Solar System is found within the Sun. This means that all the planets, moons, asteroids, minor planets, comets, gas, and dust would all combine to make up only 2% of all the matter in the Solar System. The Sun is so large that the Earth could easily fit inside the Sun a million times.
Because the Sun is so large compared to everything else, it is easily able to hold on to the rest of the matter, causing everything else to orbit around it.

Light from the Sun can reach the Earth in only 8 minutes! This is called the speed of light. The Sun is nearly 93 million miles (approx 145 million km) from Earth.

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Phoenix Water Heater

The Phoenix is a highly efficient and extremely versatile gas fired water heater. It is manufactured with super durable stainless steel materials to last longer and provide optimum heat transfer. It is up to 96% efficient with a five to one turndown, making it Energy Star rated and a great choice for your heating needs..

Free Consultation & Cash Back Offer!

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Energy Efficient

The Phoenix has up to a 96% thermal efficiency rating, making it Energy Star certified. According to Energy Star, heating water accounts for 15% of a home’s energy use. HTP high efficiency water heaters consume anywhere from 10-50% less energy than standard models. The Phoenix has a 96% efficiency rating—that means that 96 cents of every dollar is used toward heating compared to a standard efficiency unit with 60% which only provides 60 cents worth of energy toward heating.

It provides high system efficiency even during low load conditions. The modulating burner operates at a five to one turndown ratio for greater savings. This unit also complies with the SCZQMD Rule 1146.2 – ultra low NOx emissions – making it eco-friendly!


The Phoenix is available in three gallon sizes (55, 80, 119) and four BTU inputs ranging from 100,000 to 199,000. It is suitable for both residential and commercial applications.

Quality Construction

The Phoenix is laser welded and constructed with a 316L stainless steel tank to resist corrosion and last longer. It is also manufactured with a hybrid cupronickel/stainless steel heat exchanger for ultimate heat transfer capabilities. It expands and contracts rapidly with the change in temperature, eliminating scale built up and promoting self-cleaning. No anode rods are needed to fight the corrosive properties of scale build up. The Phoenix is equipped with an outdoor sensor that auto adjusts for maximum efficiency. It is also created with 2” thick foam insulation for minimal heat loss!

A Better Experience with Every Installation

The Phoenix has a light weight tank for easier installation. It vents in inexpensive PVC and CPVC. Power vent or direct power vent options are available. These units come with intake PVC tee with screens and exhaust PVC coupling with screens. LP conversion kits are also included if needed (natural gas models only).

Solar and Sanitizer water heating options are also available with the Phoenix. The Phoenix Solar Gas Fired Water Heaters are the first modulating condensing solar water heaters with an integrated gas fired back-up all in one unit.

The Phoenix Sanitizer provides high temperature sanitation for those need to be clean applications. This is great for use in restaurants, breweries, wineries, dairies and more!

Still not convinced? See what a customer has to say!

Mr. Matt Karshna of the Whitnall School District took out time to talk about his experience with Phoenix Water Heaters at Hot Water Products booth at the WASBO Conference (Wisconsin Association of School Business Officials) in the Wisconsin Dells.

Have your own review? Submit it here !

The HTP Guarantee

The Phoenix is backed by a limited 7 year residential warranty and 3 year commercial warranty (with a 5 year commercial warranty option available for purchase ).

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Solar Energy Systems for Home, Business – Non-Profits – SunBug Solar, solar power massachusetts.#Solar #power #massachusetts


SunBug Solar: Solar Energy Systems for Home, Business Non-Profits

SunBug is a full-service local solar energy company offering consultation, system design, financing options and the highest quality turnkey installations in Massachusetts.

Find Out What the Sun Can Do for You:

Solar power massachusetts

Home Owners

Now is the time for Massachusetts homeowners to take advantage of some of the nations best solar incentives to start making their own affordable, renewable power.

Solar power massachusetts


Solar is much more than just a vehicle for energy savings; it represents an excellent investment opportunity for you to increase the cash flow from your business, and add to your bottom line.

Solar power massachusetts


Solar for educational and other non-profit organizations presents specific financing and incentive challenges. Learn how SunBug translates those challenges into opportunities.


Hear from Kristi and Andrew as they describe the process of going solar with SunBug.

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Design Center

Make an appointment to visit our new Design Center and create your own custom solar system today.

Solar power massachusetts

Solar power massachusetts

Let s Talk!

Toll Free 866-945-1727




About SunBug

Founded in 2009, SunBug Solar has designed and installed over 800 solar systems all across Massachusetts, ranging in size from 1kW to over 1MW. We deliver the highest-quality solar solutions in conjunction with the best possible customer experience. Our integrated approach—from initial education through consultative design to quality installation and ongoing support—has earned SunBug the highest reputation for customer service, and a host of satisfied residential and commercial customers.

Drake Landing Solar Community, solar ca.#Solar #ca


Welcome to Drake Landing Solar Community.

Solar caThe Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC) is a master planned neighbourhood in the Town of Okotoks, Alberta, Canada that has successfully integrated Canadian energy efficient technologies with a renewable, unlimited energy source – the sun.

The first of its kind in North America, DLSC is heated by a district system designed to store abundant solar energy underground during the summer months and distribute the energy to each home for space heating needs during winter months.

The system is unprecedented in the World, fulfilling ninety percent of each home s space heating requirements from solar energy and resulting in less dependency on limited fossil fuels.

The Government of Canada and its Canadian industry partners are proud to showcase Canadian solar thermal and energy efficient technologies in this one-of-a-kind community.

Project Status

  • 10th year of reliable operation with no unscheduled interruptions in heating delivery operations;
  • 100% solar fraction in the 2015-2016 heating season, meaning all the heat required by the houses for space heating was supplied by solar energy;
  • Consistent solar fractions above 90% over the last 5 years, with an average of 96% for the period 2012-2016;
  • High solar fraction of 92% even during the very cold winter of 2013-2014;
  • Continuous monitoring and improvements during the last 10 years, leading to system over performing solar fraction design estimates;
  • Very low electricity usage, with coefficient of performance above 30. This means that for every kWh of electricity, the system delivers more than 30 kWh of heat;
  • Throughout the years, the electricity used for pumps was reduced by energy efficiency measures and on-site solar PV generation was increased with the addition of 18 kW in 2011. The operation is now net-zero electricity for pumping power, which includes pumping through the solar collectors, district heating loop and borehole thermal energy storage (BTES);
  • Strong educational component with frequent site visits by professionals and students. The technology is currently being considered by several communities in Canada as well as internationally by China, United States and several European countries.

DLSC Highlights

  • The largest subdivision of R-2000 single family homes in Canada, each 30% more efficient than conventionally built homes.
  • A first in the world, with over 90% of residential space heating needs being met by solar thermal energy.
  • A reduction of approximately 5 tonnes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per home per year.
  • Won the 2011 World Energy Globe Award for Sustainability.

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Solar Panels in San Diego #solar #panel #installation #san #diego


Sullivan Solar Power boasts an award-winning customer service team and NABCEP certification, making it only the fourth company in the nation to receive this gold-standard accreditation. The company serves residential and commercial solar consumers across Southern California, from San Diego to Los Angeles. Sullivan also partners with GRID Alternatives, supporting solar installation and job training in under-served communities in the region.

cost per watt not including incentives

ASI Hastings Inc.

Specializing in heating and air solutions as well, ASI Hastings Inc. offers solar repair and installation services across Southern California and covers all aspects of a home s climate control and energy needs. White glove installation with no subcontractors is just one of the differentiators that makes ASI a go-to name for residential solar installation in San Diego and Los Angeles.

cost per watt not including incentives


Sungevity s design and installation process begins with their patented Remote Solar Design technology, which utilizes high-resolution imagery and a home s electricity history to design a bespoke solar solution. Based out of Southern California with branches across the U.S. Sungevity also offers lease options and donates a portion of every solar system sale to an organization that provides light for Zambian children living off the grid.

cost per watt not including incentives

Stellar Solar

Rated San Diego s best solar company for several years in a row, Stellar Solar pursues residential and commercial installations across the region and offers a range of financing options, including zero down leases. The company is a customer favorite, garnering multiple, five-star reviews from solar consumers in addition to its Best of title.

cost per watt not including incentives

Solare Energy

Working within the residential, commercial, and non-profit spaces, Solare Energy partners with a wide range of manufacturers of solar modules and inverters, from LG to SMA, to deliver the right design for any project and budget. The company also maintains an impressive list of licensing and certifications, including NABCEP accreditation and CHEERS certification.

cost per watt not including incentives

REC Solar

REC Solar specializes in comprehensive solar installations for commercial properties, guiding businesses from development and financing through to post-installation maintenance and operations. The company s portfolio includes large-scale projects encompassing Costco warehouses across multiple states and bespoke projects for SMBs in Arizona, California, and Hawaii.

cost per watt not including incentives

How will I save with solar panels?

The amount you will save by installing solar panels is largely driven by the size of your system, but also depends on the unique characteristics of your home. A typical 6 kW panel system will save San Diego homeowners $33,030 over 20 years. The average initial cost of the system is $19,619. During its 20 year lifespan, the system will eliminate on average $52,650 worth of electric bills and only carry an upfront cost of $19,619.

Are solar panels a good investment?

You can calculate how much you will earn by purchasing solar panels much like you would an investment in stocks, bonds, or your savings account.

When making this comparison, it is important that you compare solar to investments that have a similar risk profile. Unlike stocks or bonds which can go up or down in value the annual energy output of your solar panels is very reliable. Because there is very little risk when investing in solar, it s best to compare your return on investment to very safe financial investments, such as short term maturity government bonds.

Year-to-date, short term government bonds have been providing a return of under 1%. Based San Diego s average electricity and solar panel cost data for a 6 kW system, homeowners can expect a return of 5.06%.

How many solar panels do I need?

The size of your solar system will largely be driven by your electricity usage. Based on typical electric rates in San Diego, someone with an average utility bill of $153 per month will require a 6kW system to offset the vast majority of their electricity usage. A smaller utility bill of $76 per month will only require a 3 kW system, while people with an electricity bill of $228 will require a larger 9kW system.

Security Assessment, VAPT, ECSA Training in Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Pune, Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Muscat, Qatar, Dubai, Certified Security Analyst, Ethical Hacking, GPEN, Penetration Tester, Network Security Testing, Web Application Security Testing, Assessment, Bootcamp, Workshop #security #assessment, #vapt, #ecsa #training, #certified #security #analyst, #ethical #hacking, #gpen, #penetration #tester, #network #security #testing, #web #application #security #testing, #assessment, #bootcamp, #workshop, #bangalore, #chennai, #mumbai, #pune, #delhi, #gurgaon, #noida, #muscat, #qatar, #dubai, #pt, #penetration #testing, #va, #vulnerability #assessment, #countermeasures, #encryption, #patch #management, #perimeter #defense, #database #security, #firewall #architecture, #intrusion #analysis, #network #attacks, #network #scanning, #os #security, #system #hacking, #black #box #penetration #testing, #grey #box #penetration #testing, #white #box #penetration #testing, #aes, #advanced #encryption #standard, #backdoors, #bou, #buffer #overflow #utility, #brute #force #attack, #brutus, #burp #suite, #code #analysis, #code #injection #attack, #cross #site #request #forgery, #cross #site #scripting, #cryptography, #data #breach, #data #encryption #standard, #data #execution #prevention, #ddos, #distributed #denial #of #service, #dmz, #demilitarized #zone, #dos, #denial #of #service, #dep, #des, #digital #signature, #directory #traversal, #emet, #enhanced #mitigation #experience #toolkit, #enumeration, #footprinting, #gak, #government #access #to #keys, #google #hacking, #hacktivism, #hijacking #webservers, #honeypots, #ibm #appscan, #identify #theft, #ids, #intrusion #detection #system, #ip #address #spoofing, #ips, #intrusion #prevention #system, #keystroke #loggers, #kismet, #ldap #injection, #linux #hacking, #malware, #man-in-the-middle #attack, #metasploit #architecture, #nessus, #nmap, #packet #sniffing, #paros, #password #cracking, #phishing, #pki, #public #key #infrastructure, #privilege #escalation, #reconnaissance, #rsa, #rivest #shamir #adleman, #rootkits, #san #cwe #top #25, #sha, #secure #hashing #algorithm, #ssh, #secure #shell, #ssl, #secure #sockets #layer, #session #hijacking, #snmp, #simple #network #management #protocol, #siv, #system #integrity #verifiers, #snort, #social #engineering, #solar #winds, #spyware, #sql #injection, #steganography, #thread #modeling, #threat #profiling, #tls, #transport #layer #security, #trojans, #utm, #unified #threat #management, #virus, #wep #encryption, #wepcrack, #worms, #wpa #cracking


A penetration test is done to evaluate the security of a computer system or network by simulating an attack by a malicious user / hacker. The process involves active exploitation of security vulnerabilities that may be present due to poor or improper system configuration, known and / or unknown hardware or software flaws, or operational weaknesses in process or design.

This analysis is carried out from the position of a potential attacker, to determine feasibility of an attack and the resulting business impact of a successful exploit. Usually this is presented with recommendations for mitigation or a technical solution.

About this workshop

This workshop gives an in-depth perspective of penetration testing approach and methodology that covers all modern infrastructure, operating systems and application environments.

This workshop is designed to teach security professionals the tools and techniques required to perform comprehensive information security assessment.

Participants will learn how to design, secure and test networks to protect their organization from the threats hackers and crackers pose. This workshop will help participants to effectively identify and mitigate risks to the security of their organization s infrastructure.

This 40 hour highly interactive workshop will help participants have hands on understanding and experience in Security Assessment.

A proper understanding of Security Assessment is an important requirement to analyze the integrity of the IT infrastructure.

Expertise in security assessment is an absolute requirement for a career in information security management and could be followed by management level certifications like CISA, CISSP, CISM, CRISC and ISO 27001.

There are many reasons to understand Security Assessment:

  • Prepare yourself to handle penetration testing assignments with more clarity
  • Understand how to conduct Vulnerability Assessment
  • Expand your present knowledge of identifying threats and vulnerabilities
  • Bring security expertise to your current occupation
  • Become more marketable in a highly competitive environment

Therefore this workshop will prepare you to handle VA / PT assignments and give you a better understanding of various security concepts and practices that will be of valuable use to you and your organization.

This workshop will significantly benefit professionals responsible for security assessment of the network / IT infrastructure.

  • IS / IT Specialist / Analyst / Manager
  • IS / IT Auditor / Consultant
  • IT Operations Manager
  • Security Specialist / Analyst
  • Security Manager / Architect
  • Security Consultant / Professional
  • Security Officer / Engineer
  • Security Administrator
  • Security Auditor
  • Network Specialist / Analyst
  • Network Manager / Architect
  • Network Consultant / Professional
  • Network Administrator
  • Senior Systems Engineer
  • Systems Analyst
  • Systems Administrator

Anyone aspiring for a career in Security Assessment would benefit from this workshop. The workshop is restricted to participants who have knowledge of ethical hacking countermeasures.

The entire workshop is a combination of theory and hands-on sessions conducted in a dedicated ethical hacking lab environment.

  • The Need for Security Analysis
  • Advanced Googling
  • TCP/IP Packet Analysis
  • Advanced Sniffing Techniques
  • Vulnerability Analysis with Nessus
  • Advanced Wireless Testing
  • Designing a DMZ
  • Snort Analysis
  • Log Analysis
  • Advanced Exploits and Tools
  • Penetration Testing Methodologies
  • Customers and Legal Agreements
  • Rules of Engagement
  • Penetration Testing Planning and Scheduling
  • Pre Penetration Testing Checklist
  • Information Gathering
  • Vulnerability Analysis
  • External Penetration Testing
  • Internal Network Penetration Testing
  • Routers and Switches Penetration Testing
  • Firewall Penetration Testing
  • IDS Penetration Testing
  • Wireless Network Penetration Testing
  • Denial of Service Penetration Testing
  • Password Cracking Penetration Testing
  • Social Engineering Penetration Testing
  • Stolen Laptop, PDAs and Cell phones Penetration Testing
  • Application Penetration Testing
  • Physical Security Penetration Testing
  • Database Penetration testing
  • VoIP Penetration Testing
  • VPN Penetration Testing
  • War Dialing
  • Virus and Trojan Detection
  • Log Management Penetration Testing
  • File Integrity Checking
  • Blue Tooth and Hand held Device Penetration Testing
  • Telecommunication and Broadband Communication Penetration Testing
  • Email Security Penetration Testing
  • Security Patches Penetration Testing
  • Data Leakage Penetration Testing
  • Penetration Testing Deliverables and Conclusion
  • Penetration Testing Report and Documentation Writing
  • Penetration Testing Report Analysis
  • Post Testing Actions
  • Ethics of a Penetration Tester
  • Standards and Compliance

Best Thin Film Solar Panels – Amorphous, Cadmium Telluride or CIGS? Energy Informative #will #solar #panels #get #cheaper


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Best Thin Film Solar Panels – Amorphous, Cadmium Telluride or CIGS?

Thin film solar panels accounted for 11% of all solar panel sales in 2011. [1] Production capacity is expected to grow at an annual rate of 24%, reaching more than 22 GW by 2020 (or a global market share of 38% in terms module production). [2]

There are three primary types of thin film solar panels on the market today: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIS/CIGS). In the overview chart below you can see their main characteristics:

Protocrystalline, nanocrystalline (nc-Si), black silicon, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and other organic solar cells will not be covered in this article. These technologies still have a long way to go in research and development before they are ready for the market.

Amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIS/CIGS) have several other benefits and downsides in addition to what you read in the chart above:

  • Significantly higher temperature resistance compared to crystalline-based solar panels.
  • Many thin-film modules are flexible, which greatly increases the number of potential applications (e.g. curved surfaces, building-integrated photovoltaics).
  • Better resistance against shading.
  • Lower efficiency rates mean you need a physically larger system for the same power output.
  • Installation costs goes up because you need to install more solar panels.
  • Thin film solar panels tend to degrade faster.
  • Silicon costs are declining and silicon-based solar panels (e.g. mono- and polycrystalline) are becoming more affordable.

Amorphous silicon (a-Si)

The first thin film solar cells were based on amorphous silicon. The technology is most commonly used in devices that require very little power (e.g. pocket calculators) because of low efficiency rates.

The future of larger-scale amorphous silicon solar panels does not look very bright: Sharp retired 160 out of their 320 MW production capacity in Japan earlier this year.

Optisolar, Signet Solar, Unisolar, and many other companies that were touting the amorphous technology are acquired, bankrupt or closed.

Energy Matters, one of the leading solar installers in Australia, recommend amorphous thin film solar panels for their customers in far North Queensland and the Northern Territory due to performance advantages in high temperatures (better heat resistance).

Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)

It’s all about First Solar when it comes to cadmium telluride solar panels. Abound Solar has declared bankruptcy and General Electric`s PrimeStar is failing. First Solar is the world-record holder for CdTe thin film module (14.4%) and cell (18.7%) efficiency, and backs their solar panels with a limited 25-year power output warranty. [5] The company is currently building a 230 MW solar power plant in Antelope Valley and looks to generate $0.8 billion to $1.0 billion of operating cash flow in 2013. [7]

In some situations, typically multi-kilowatt systems in higher temperatures, CdTe-based solar panels can beat mono- and polycrystalline solar panels in terms of costs.

There are, however, environmental issues with products that rely on cadmium – a heavy metal and potential carcinogen that can accumulate in plant and animal tissue. While the threat is minimal as long as the compound is contained within the solar panel, the disposal and recycling can be both dangerous and costly.

Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIS/CIGS)

Solyndra, MiaSolé, Nanosolar, AQT, Solopower and many more – the list of CIS/CIGS companies that have failed goes on and on. In the midst of distress sales and bankruptcies, the Japanese manufacturer Solar Frontier seems to be doing something right. The company recently built out a 1 GW factory and shipped 577 MW worth of solar panels in 2011.

The CIGS-technology might also see some success via Hanergy, a Chinese company that has gained a strong position in the thin film solar market through the acquisition of MiaSolé and Solibro.

In 2013, scientists at Empa, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, successfully created CIGS solar cells on flexible polymer foils with a new record efficiency of 20.4%. [3] This makes CIGS-based solar panels the highest performing thin film solar panels to date.

Also worth mentioning is that less of the toxic material cadmium is present in CIGS solar cells (compared to solar cells made out of cadmium telluride).

So, which thin film solar panel type is really the best? First of all, a mono- or polycrystalline solar panel is a better choice for the vast majority of homeowners. If you`re looking for a large-scale system, have the extra space required, and live in an area where the temperature is unusually high, thin film solar panels can make sense. If you want a flexible option, your options are amorphous silicon or CIGS.

The next step would be to predict long-term earnings and costs of specific solar modules. Go for a product that is backed up with a good performance guarantee/warranty.

If you want expert guidance to find out which solar panel is better in your situation, simply request a Free Solar Consultation .

The Real Cost of Leasing vs #buying #solar #panels, #leasing, #solar #electric #system, #tax #credits, #regulations, #home #equity #loan, #installation, #homestyle #energy #mortgage #program, #savings


The Real Cost of Leasing vs. Buying Solar Panels

Buying solar panels requires an investment and more decision-making than leasing, but over the long term the benefits of owning your system are hard to beat.

Best Ways to Pay for Your Panels

Buying your solar electric system outright is best. It usually costs $15,000 to $20,000 after tax credits and can reduce your electricity bill by 70 to 100 percent, depending on the size and orientation of your roof and local regulations. Most systems pay for themselves in five to seven years.

Home Equity Loan
If you need to finance your solar panel purchase, the most cost-effective way to do it is to use a home equity loan or a home equity line of credit. Because your house serves as collateral, these options have low interest rates (currently about 3 to 5 percent). The interest you pay is tax deductible. Equity loans range from 5 to 20 years and usually have fixed interest rates. Equity lines last 10 years and have variable rates (so the interest may increase).

Solar Loan
There are unsecured and secured solar loans. With an unsecured loan, your house doesn’t act as collateral and the interest isn’t tax deductible. Many solar installers work with lenders that offer solar loans, but you’ll probably find better rates by directly checking with banks, and credit unions. Watch out for high origination fees. Fannie Mae also offers consumers financing for solar system installations through its HomeStyle Energy Mortgage Program when they buy a new house or refinance.

Why Leasing Isn’t a Bright Idea

The steep up-front costs for a residential solar system can make a leasing company’s sales pitch sound pretty appealing: Pay little or nothing and save hundreds of dollars per year on average. (The premise is that you save because the combination of your lease payment and your electric bill is less than what you currently pay for power.) Leasing can also look seductively simple compared with buying: There’s no need to shop separately for an installer and financing; you just sign on the dotted line. So it’s not surprising that 72 percent of the people who installed residential solar systems in 2014 did so through leasing or another type of third-party arrangement. But the reality is not quite so sunny.

Your Savings Will Be Modest
People who lease their solar systems save far less than those who buy them outright or with a loan (they also miss out on federal tax benefits and any local incentives). Many leases contain an escalator clause that can further reduce savings by increasing payments 3 percent per year. So if you’re paying 12 cents per kilowatt-hour in year one, with a 3 percent escalator, you’ll be paying 18.2 cents in year 15. That means that if the cost of energy doesn’t rise as quickly as the contracted lease payments increase, your savings could evaporate.

You Lose Control of Your Roof
Leasing companies want to maximize their profit, so there’s a chance you could wind up with more panels than you want and that they could be installed in highly visible places—such as facing the street—without any regard to appearance. To avoid that, check the final system design and placement before signing the lease. It could be different from the initial mock-up.

Leases Can Scare Off Home Buyers
If you put your house on the market before the lease is up (usually 20 years), you will either have to buy out the lease or the person purchasing your home will have to assume it—which some are reluctant to do.

That’s what happened to Andrew and Nora Barber, who had to buy out the lease on the solar system on their Clovis, Calif. home after two prospective buyers were frightened away by it. “I offered the solar company $16,000, which was the total of all the payments for the remainder of the contract,” Andrew says. “But $21,000 was the buyout price in the contract, and the company wouldn’t budge.”

Some solar leasing companies may offer to relocate their systems from one house to another. That could cost $500 for an initial audit and another $500 to transfer the panels, if the leasing company determines it can be done. You would also need approval from your utility and local landmarks commission or the condo or homeowner’s association, if applicable. Plus the new house must be able to accommodate the old system.

And remember: At the end of the lease, the solar company could remove the system—and your savings along with it.

Service Plans Don’t Serve You
Though leasing companies tout their service plans, maintenance is a red herring. “Generally, there’s really no scenario where the maintenance plan is going to kick in,” says Joshua Pearce, an engineering professor and solar expert at the Michigan Tech Open Sustainability Technology Lab. Equipment problems aren’t covered by the maintenance plan, they’re covered by the warranty. And if a storm destroys your panels, the damage may be covered by your homeowners insurance.

That’s why—whether you buy or lease—it’s essential that you inform your insurer. (Roof-mounted solar is generally added as part of a standard homeowners policy at no additional cost; ground-mounted solar may require an insurance rider.)

Select Solar Panels, PV, 12V Solar Panel Kits UK #select #solar, #12v #24v #panel, #panels #kit, #solar #panel #kits, #portable #solar #products, #battery #backup, #battery #back-up #for #your #existing #installation, #renewable #energy, #charge #controllers, #solar #lighting, #solar #for #caravans, #solar #for #motor #homes, #solar #for #boats, #solar #for #motorbikes, #charger,chargers


My wife and I chose Select Solar, to install a photovoltaic (PV) system after lengthy research and talking to other solar installers. What impressed us first was how easy it was to talk with Colin Howe and how knowledgeable he was with the current state of the solar industry. We had two requirements in reducing our electrical cost; find a way to reduce our daily demand and then create supplemental power that we would use in our house and feed back to the local electric grid.

the order arrived the next day.

Easy to order and no problems whatsoever.100% happy.

Ace Solar Power

Like your website

Most cost effective quote. Install is of high quality and they were good to work with. I recommend them if you are considering putting solar at your home.

good. web site easy and fun

Thank you Colin. I had a technical enquiry that was dealt with by Colin over the telephone. Very professional service and answered in terms that I could understand. My specific technical enquiry was dealt with a professional manner but without the salesman jargon that I had been getting all day.

Take a look at our featured products.

Select Solar – the solar power specialists

Select Solar – the solar power specialists, with one of the biggest and best selection of solar pv energy products for business and leisure. We sell top quality branded solar products backed by full warranties, complete technical specifications, and excellent uk customer service.

Whether you need 12V or 24V solar panels or just components (such as a charger for your motorhome or boat) or full solar panel kits with accessories for professional business or leisure projects, Battery Back-up for your existing Solar Installation, we may well have exactly what it is you are looking for.

If you just want green energy products to use around the house, we have those too. If you require any technical information or other help, we ll be delighted to advise you.

Click here to read more about Select Solar and our group of companies.

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Select Solar Supply the most comprehensive and tested range of eco products including 12v Solar Panels ranging from 10w up to any amount. Read more

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If you are not happy, send it back within 14 days for a full refund. Read more here .

We send to anywhere in the world, dispatching most items within 3 working days of order. We will let you know if it will be longer. Full delivery details here.

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The Necessity of PASMA Training

There are two excellent reasons why pasma training is so essential. First reason is a legal issue. The Work at Height Regulations state that anyone who is working on a mobile access tower must be competent or be supervised by someone.

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There are many places in the UK where you can easily attend the one day pasma training course. The course is designed for anyone who has to operate or oversee the operation of mobile access towers. You can decide to attend the.

Fundamental Inspection Testing Training

If you have limited experience testing or inspecting electrical installations further electrical training may be essential. There is an excellent course available which will not only give you a qualification; it will teach you the.

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America s Best Solar Energy Companies

Solar Energy has gone from a fringe interest of the environmentally aware, to a viable option in new home construction and renovation. More businesses and government entities are also turning towards solar to power self-contained systems to promote energy reserves on site. Here are the best 15 US solar energy companies today. Some of them are very new, and some have been working with solar technology and construction for well over 30 years.

15 Best U.S. Solar Energy Companies

1. Verengo Solar – This one has become one of the top 3 residential solar installing companies in the US just based on market share. It has done so well that there is rumor it is now inviting buyers. Focused on the residential market, Verengo Solar reportedly installed over 12,000 solar units in residences since it opened for business. It is considered to be very friendly to those just beginning to explore solar lifestyles, but also scores well with business and commercial accounts too.

2. SolarCity – Next on the list is another of the largest residential solar installation companies in the US. What really makes SolarCity a standout in the industry is it also has its own manufacturing division. While they mostly work with residences, they also can provide for government and non-profit purchase, leasing and PPA programs as they can manufacture their panels to fit the order. Their installation and financing abilities also help to make SolarCity one of the best companies to choose to get started with solar in your home or business.

3. Sungevity – This company really makes the grade for being the pioneers in the US industry in solar leasing. They offer leasing and financing, but they are not dependent on each other. The effect of this model is it allowed for Sungevity to expand to offer solar options in underserved areas by promoting satellite distribution and installation companies under their brand logo. Their leasing has been a hit with residential, PPA and business entities; plus their other services have made them a strong and steady presence in the traditional market, including government and non-profit needs.

4. SunPower – This company has the distinction of being a worldwide leader in solar cell and module manufacturing, as well as a leading installer of solar equipment. It is a US based company, and their primary focus was on developing the residential market. While focused on home solar use, SunPower also has a very strong commercial arm, which places them in the top 3 of the providers and installers in the 48 states for business and government use. Their product line covers everything from small DIY projects, to home conversions, new construction and corporate installations too.

5. Sunrun – Sunrun is a relative newcomer to the industry, incorporating in 2007. They currently only serve 11 states, but within those states they have now become one of the largest solar installers. They don t do any manufacturing, but they are leasing and installation specialists. Their contracts are evenly divided over residential, commercial and government contracts. They also are one of the first choices for PPA customers and those just beginning to explore solar power.

6. RGS Energy – RGS Energy is a division of Real Goods Solar. Real Goods Solar is the 5 th largest US residential solar installation company. Their RGS Energy division is their latest innovation to bring their products to more residences, businesses and other PPA customers. They offer both leasing and financing. RGS has been serving customers for over 35 years and are considered one of the pioneers in making solar energy a viable alternative for private homes and businesses.

7. OneRoof Energy – One of the newer companies on the market, OneRoof Energy. this company was founded in 2011. They neither make nor sell solar modules, panels or components; they are a bespoke lease agent for other companies. The bonus for their companies is this has allowed them to carve out a niche in leased services and components that let companies and residential customers take the best advantage of industry discounts. They can also bring to an under-served area solar access through their negotiated access.

8. PetersenDean – PetersenDean started in 1984 and have been one of the primary leaders and innovators in the US solar energy market since. They combine roofing services with solar installation. The solar component is a relatively new addition to their divisions, but their longstanding history in the roofing marker has given them the edge on what different markets need to make solar energy viable. They have a high residential service percentage, but also do commercial work and government contracts too.

9. Vivint Solar – Right on the heels of PetersenDean is Vivint Solar. They don t have a roofing division but have divisions devoted to home security and automation. Like PetersenDean they have launched into the solar market by making the best use of their knowledge of residential and commercial needs. As of 2013, they were ranked 2 nd in the nation as a provider of solar installation. They do installation and lease products, sell components but do no manufacturing of their own. They serve residential, business and government agencies through direct sales, leasing and PPA agreements.

10. Horizon Solar Power – Horizon is an unusual addition to this list as they are mostly centered on the Southern California area. This area does represent one of the highest ratios of solar energy use in the nation. To that end, they are a leading provider of residential solutions. Their focus is on solar inclusion in rehabs, and in new construction. With their unique price agreements with solar module and component manufacturers, they are also the leading provider of discount panels to residential customers.

11. Solar World USA – SolarWorld is a solar pioneer, one of the world’s largest solar-technology producers and the largest U.S. solar panel manufacturer for 40 years. In its technology, manufacturing, performance, service and environmental track record, the company is a solar industry leader.

12. Solar Universe – Headquartered in California, Solar Universe has been providing locally owned and operated solar to neighborhoods across the country since 2008 through their locally owned and operated franchise network. They ve developed a unique solar franchise network which brings energy savings to consumers and businesses through our network of locally owned and operated franchises.

13. First Solar – First Solar is the global leader in photovoltaic (PV) solar energy solutions. First Solar has developed, financed, engineered, constructed, and currently operates many of the world’s largest grid-connected PV power plants in existence. By integrating technologies, services and expertise across the entire solar value chain, First Solar delivers bankable PV energy solutions that enable a world powered by reliable and affordable solar electricity.

14. Trinity Solar – Trinity Solar is the leading designer and integrator of solar electric systems in the Northeast. Their mission is to provide high-performing, cost-effective, environmentally responsible solutions to address the energy needs of our customers. Trinity has installed over 7,000 solar power systems, grown to over 350 employees, has become the largest solar provider in the Northeast, and is now one of the top ten solar providers in the nation.

15. Suniva Suniva is the leading American manufacturer of high-efficiency, cost-competitive PV solar cells and modules. The company is known worldwide for its high-quality solar products, patented low-cost manufacturing technology, and long-term reliable performance. Our ground-breaking manufacturing process ensures the combination of high power and exceptional value in every product we make, while our research milestones continue to set the standard in the global PV marketplace.

The common thread with all of these US solar energy companies is they have recognized that there are more places solar can be applied than thought before. The new leasing and discount programs make it easier for residences and businesses to incorporate solar energy in their constructions. Rather than think that houses need to be all solar, there is more drive to put solar assistance in place for existing fossil fuel systems.

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Chapter 3: Resistance and Static Electricity

As we have learned, some kinds of atoms contain loosely attached electrons. Electrons can be made to move easily from one atom to another. When those electrons move among the atoms of matter, a current of electricity is created.

Take a piece of wire. The electrons are passed from atom to atom, creating an electrical current from one end to the other. Electrons are very, very small. A single copper penny contains more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (1×1022) electrons.

Electricity “flows” or moves through some things better than others do. The measurement of how well something conducts electricity is called its resistance.

Resistance in wire depends on how thick and how long it is, and what it’s made of. The thickness of wire is called its gauge. The smaller the gauge, the bigger the wire. Some of the largest thicknesses of regular wire is gauge 1.

Different types of metal are used in making wire. You can have copper wire, aluminum wire, even steel wire. Each of these metals has a different resistance; how well the metal conducts electricity. The lower the resistance of a wire, the better it conducts electricity.

Copper is used in many wires because it has a lower resistance than many other metals. The wires in your walls, inside your lamps and elsewhere are usually copper.

A piece of metal can be made to act like a heater. When an electrical current occurs, the resistance causes friction and the friction causes heat. The higher the resistance, the hotter it can get. So, a coiled wire high in resistance, like the wire in a hair dryer, can be very hot.

Some things conduct electricity very poorly. These are called insulators. Rubber is a good insulator, and that’s why rubber is used to cover wires in an electric cord. Glass is another good insulator. If you look at the end of a power line, you’ll see that it is attached to some bumpy looking things. These are glass insulators. They keep the metal of the wires from touching the metal of the towers.

Another type of electrical energy is static electricity. Unlike current electricity that moves, static electricity stays in one place.

Try this experiment.

Rub a balloon filled with air on a wool sweater or on your hair. Then hold it up to a wall. The balloon will stay there by itself.

Tie strings to the ends of two balloons. Now rub the two balloons together, hold them by strings at the end and put them next to each other. They’ll move apart.

Rubbing the balloons gives them static electricity. When you rub the balloon it picks up extra electrons from the sweater or your hair and becomes slightly negatively charged.

The negative charges in the single balloon are attracted to the positive charges in the wall.

The two balloons hanging by strings both have negative charges. Negative charges always repel negative charges and positive always repels positive charges. So, the two balloons’ negative charges “push” each other apart.

Static electricity can also give you a shock. If you walk across a carpet, shuffling your feet and touching something made of metal, a spark can jump between you and the metal object. Shuffling your feet picks up additional electrons spread over your body. When you touch a metal doorknob or something with a positive charge the electricity jumps across the small gap from your fingers just before you touch the metal knob. If you walk across a carpet and touch a computer case, you can damage the computer.

One other type of static electricity is very spectacular. It’s the lightning in a thunder and lightning storm. Clouds become negatively charged as ice crystals inside the clouds rub up against each other. Meanwhile, on the ground, the positive charge increases. The clouds get so highly charged that the electrons jump from the ground to the cloud, or from one cloud to another cloud. This causes a huge spark of static electricity in the sky that we call lightning.

You can find out more about lightning at Web Weather for Kids –

You’ll remember from Chapter 2 that the word “electricity” came from the Greek words “elektor,” for “beaming sun” and “elektron,” both words describing amber. Amber is fossilized tree sap millions of years old and has hardened as hard as a stone.

Around 600 BCE (Before the Common Era) Greeks noticed a strange effect: When rubbing “elektron” against a piece of fur, the amber would start attracting particles of dust, feathers and straw. No one paid much attention to this “strange effect” until about 1600 when Dr. William Gilbert investigated the reactions of magnets and amber and discovered other objects can be made “electric.”

Gilbert said that amber acquired what he called “resinous electricity” when rubbed with fur. Glass, however, when rubbed with silk, acquired what he termed “vitreous electricity.”

He thought that electricity repelled the same kind and attracts the opposite kind of electricity. Gilbert and other scientists of that time thought that the friction actually created the electricity (their word for the electrical charge).

In 1747, Benjamin Franklin in America and William Watson in England both reached the same conclusion. They said all materials possess a single kind of electrical “fluid.” They didn’t really know anything about atoms and electrons, so they called how it behaved a “fluid.”

They thought that this fluid can penetrate matter freely and couldn’t be created or destroyed. The two men thought that the action of rubbing (like rubbing amber with fur) moves this unseen fluid from one thing to another, electrifying both.

Franklin defined the fluid as positive and the lack of fluid as negative. Therefore, according to Franklin, the direction of flow was from positive to negative. Today, we know that the opposite is true. Electricity flows from negative to positive. Others took the idea even further saying this that two fluids are involved. They said items with the same fluid attract each other. And opposite types of fluid in objects will make them repel each other.

All of this was only partially right. This is how scientific theories develop. Someone thinks of why something occurs and then proposes an explanation. It can take centuries sometime to find the real truth. Instead of electricity being a fluid, it is the movement of the charged particles between the objects. the two objects are really exchanging electrons.

Learn about Electrical Circuits and electrons in Chapter 4.

Solar Power Questions – Learn from IPS Integrated Power Systems #solar #power #questions


Solar Power Questions

Welcome to our newsletter blog: Solar Power Questions Learn from IPS.

Our goal is to help you understand the basics of solar power systems, so you may make informed and educated choices.

With 24 years of experience designing and installing solar power systems , we get a lot of the same questions over and over again, but one of the most common and important questions people ask us is about net metering.

“If you have a solar powered system, how does the billing work? Or in other words how do BC Hydro and FortisBC calculate net metering?

Both BC Hydro and Fortis BC calculate net metering based on 2 time frames: Billing periods annual reconciliation.

1. Billing Periods
During a billing period, if your system produces more energy than you use, then a kW credit will carry through to the next billing period.

Example: Your solar power system produces 2600kW and you consume only 1600kW in a billing period. You will not be charged for any power usage.

A credit of 1000kW will carry forward to the next billing period.

During the next billing period, if the weather turns ugly and you produce only 500kW, but use 2500kW, the previous credit of 1000kW would be subtracted and you would only be billed for 1000kW of power consumption.

2. Annual Reconciliation

Once a year, on the anniversary date of your Grid-Tie system start-up, the utility company will add up how many kW’s your system produced and subtract your energy usage.

If you have a credit and depending on the utility company, you may be issued a check.

Now of course this leads to the next question that most people ask us:

Question: What are the differences between how BC Hydro and Fortis, and do they pay back customers equally for power credits?

We will tackle that very question and take an in-depth look into the differences between BC Hydro and Fortis in the next edition of. Solar Power Questions Learn from IPS.
We look forward to your questions and comments and please feel free to share this post if you think it might be helpful to someone you know.

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Welcome to Our Site

We are strictly residential electricians. This means we know how to take care of your home in every way. We specialize in accent lighting, ceiling fans. kitchen remodels. bathroom lighting. can lighting, energy efficient lighting. attic fans. house wiring. and much more.

Our company cleans up like no other contractor you ve seen. We vacuum up any mess with our own vacuum! All our employees are cordial and trustworthy. We are a family company and we consider our customers to be our extended family. Your satisfaction with our service is our utmost priority. Our customers generally come to us through word of mouth and our phone rings constantly. Thank you for recommending us through the years and trusting us with your home.

We Provide Services to the Following Cities and Towns in CA:

  • Orange County, CA
  • Mission Viejo, CA
  • Irvine, CA
  • Woodbridge, CA
  • Turtle Rock, CA
  • Newport, CA
  • Newport Beach, CA
  • Big Canyon, CA
  • Balboa, CA
  • Monarch Beach, CA
  • Newport Coast, CA
  • Shady Canyon, CA
  • Laguna, CA
  • Laguna Beach, CA
  • Corona Del Mar, CA
  • Huntington Beach, CA
  • Seal Beach, CA
  • Long Beach, CA
  • Sunset Beach, CA
  • Los Alamitos, CA
  • Rossmoor, CA
  • Fountain Valley, CA
  • Costa Mesa, CA
  • Yorba Linda, CA
  • Orange, CA
  • Anaheim, CA
  • Anaheim Hills, CA
  • Tustin, CA
  • Tustin Ranch, CA
  • North Tustin, CA
  • Santa Ana, CA
  • Villa Park, CA
  • Rancho Santa Margarita, CA
  • Lake Forest, CA
  • Irvine Spectrum, CA
  • Foothill Ranch, CA
  • Coto De Caza, CA
  • Coto, CA
  • Dove Canyon, CA
  • Ladera Ranch, CA
  • Ladera, CA
  • Las Flores, CA
  • San Juan, CA
  • San Juan Capistrano, CA
  • Laguna Niguel, CA
  • Laguna Hills, CA
  • Trabuco Canyon, CA
  • Dana Point, CA
  • San Clemente, CA
  • Saddleback, CA
  • South Orange County, CA

Excellant work and very courteous. Thank you!

The team was very efficient and did a clean, professional job of installing our two ceiling fans. The did a great job of explaining the controls after installation. Great job!

Outstanding and professional service. will always recommend Armes Electric for any electrical work.

Jason and Juan did an absolutely flawless job installing can lights. They left no holes in the walls or marks on the ceiling – just two lights exactly where we asked that they be installed. Your workers always do an outstanding job.

Armes Electric provides you with these services, and More..

Kitchen/Bath Remodels
Recessed Can Lighting
Picture Lighting
Accent Lighting
Under cabinet Lighting
240 Spa Runs
Convenience/Holiday Outlets

We look forward to serving all of your electrical needs.

We are strictly residential electricians. This means we know how to take care of your home in every way. We specialize in accent lighting, ceiling fans, kitchen remodels, can lighting, attic fans, and much more. Our company cleans up like no other contractor you ve seen. We vacuum up any mess with our own vacuum! All our employees are cordial and trustworthy. We are a family company and we consider our customers to be our extended family. Your satisfaction with our service is our utmost priority. Our customers generally come to us through word of mouth and our phone rings constantly.

Tesla unveils discreet new rooftop solar panels #tesla, #tesla #solar #panels, #new #tesla #solar #panels, #tesla #solar #panels #blend #into #roofs, #tesla #panasonic #solar #panels, #panasonic #solar #panels #for #tesla, #tesla #solar #roof #options, #elon #musk #solar #roof,solar #energy,panasonic,renewable #energy,rooftop #solar,solar #panel,solar #panels,solar #power,tesla #energy,tesla #solar,tesla #solar #roof


Tesla unveils discreet new rooftop solar panels

Elon Musk s solar roof tiles won t fit the bill for every home. Some homeowners won t want to replace their entire roofs. but Tesla. of course, already has a solution. They re now marketing sleek, low-profile solar panels that are easy to install and better blend in with roofs than traditional panels.

Leave it to Tesla to offer an elegant alternative to traditional solar panels. They updated the Energy section of their website over the weekend to include new images of their solar panels. The seamless look of the new technology is thanks to integrated front skirts and no visible mounting hardware according to Tesla s website. Electrek said these features come from Zep Solar. a mounting equipment company SolarCity acquired before Tesla s acquisition. Zep Solar engineers designed the rail-less system Solar City employed to slash solar installation times in half.

Tesla says their panels exceed industry standards for durability and lifespan on their website. Panasonic will be manufacturing the exclusive panels at the Gigafactory 2 in Buffalo, New York. There aren t many specifics available for the new solar panels yet, but Electrek said they will be 325-watt panels. They noted Panasonic sells other 325 watt panels, and those have a 25-year power output warranty and a 21.76 percent module efficiency.

Tesla and before that SolarCity used to install solar panels from multiple suppliers as many solar companies do, but told Electrek once these new panels go into production, Tesla will use them for all residential projects in the future. It seems Elon Musk aims at offering solar solutions with better aesthetics for those who have been hesitant to go solar in the past with the bulky rooftop options.

Anyone interested right now can request a custom quote on Tesla s website. The company told Electrek production should begin this summer.

How much does a solar system cost these days? #cost #of #solar, #solar #pv, #system #cost, #price, #savings, #solar #quote


How much does a solar system cost these days?

To Top | Article Highlights

The cost of a solar power system installed on your roof top has reduced significantly over the years, and even more so in recent years, as more and more homeowners turn to solar, the demand increased and prompted many companies to manufacture and distribute solar components at a high quality, but at a much reduced rate due to the increased competition.

Here is a chart that demonstrates that price reduction:

It is quite clear from the chart how big the price cut was, and that’s for a complete system without reducing the cost for the customer after applying the incentives and tax breaks homeowners gets from their respective states.

While these vary from state to state, in many of them, it is now so lucrative, that solar powered homes make a lot of sense .

Check your Solar Costs by using our FREE Solar Calculator. it’s that easy!

To further demonstrate the costs or rather, the reduction of cost for the systems, here is a chart that shows how the cost of the component has been used in a residential solar power installation reduced.

Amazingly enough, the chart shows a reduction of rates from quarter to quarter (!) as of 2014, not years.

To know your savings, you will need..

Solar power systems are different from one location to the next. To figure out exactly how much electricity you can save, installation companies need to know the following:
Where do you live? – Each state has different solar policies thus changing the savings from one location to the next.
Is there shade on your roof? – Obviously to go solar, you will need the help of the sun, and the more, the better.
What type of roof do you have? – Some are easier than others to install on.
What direction is your roof facing? – A key factor for the system to maximize its potential.
What is your current electric bill? – The more you pay, the more you will save with solar .

Here is a great video detailing the cost of solar PV system breakdown:

The California Case Study

Let’s take a look at a typical 5KW system installation and savings of a Los Angeles home in California .

This is just to demonstrate your savings. It is obviously very different from home to home and we recommend connecting with solar installers for the most accurate quotes on costs and savings.

An average cost for 5KW of system will cost you around $20K to install. (Panels, labor, connections etc.). This is just our starting point. Now we need to subtract the incentives and solar federal tax breaks as follows: Subtract the rebate you’ll receive for each KW, which is totaled at $3750.

Now we need to subtract the federal solar tax credit at an amazing 30% to reduce the bill by another $4875 dollars. That brings your total savings to $8625 dollars !

So, all of a sudden, a $20K investment turns to $11,375. That is almost half of the original cost, and that’s big.

Again, each state has a different policy and each municipal, has different incentives like rebate program. For example, the LADWP (Los Angeles Department of Water and Power) rebate program is much different than the SMUD (Sacramento Municipal Utility District) rebate program.

T o get the most accurate quote, and see exactly how much you can save, click here and get a quote from a qualified solar installer.

One of the main reasons people tend to not get very excited about the prospect of installing a solar energy system to their home is their perception of the costs involved.

[blue[The truth is, over the long term, a solar energy system will pay for itself. and will actually generate you money in the form of lower utility bills, tax incentives, and selling back a proportion of the energy you produce but do not use to utilities companies.[/blue]

How much you stand to make depends upon where in the US you live, how much sunshine you typically see, and how electricity costs you. Naturally, the more money you pay for your energy supply, the more money you will save when you switch to solar .

The costs involved depends upon what kind of system you install. You can even have solar panels installed for free by allowing a solar energy company to lease your roof space off you so they can install their panels there.

They sell the electricity the panels generate back to you at a cost that’s typically much lower than mains electricity. but you will not receive the tax breaks and long-term benefits available to you if you go down this route.

How much electricity do you use?

If you do buy your own panels, then you will need to buy enough to make your switch to solar worthwhile, and you make it worthwhile by calculating how much electricity you use .

You really need 1 kW worth of solar panels for every $50 you pay in electricity every month, so if you pay $200 for your electricity per month, you are going to need a 4 kW solar panel system.

Each solar panel is worth around 250 to 300 W, so for a 2 kW system you will need eight panels, and for a 4 kW system, you will need sixteen. You will need to make sure you have sufficient roof space to install the system that you require.

Check out your options

As you may imagine, there are plenty of different manufacturers of solar panels. all having different standards of the efficiency of the panels they produce, with different costs as well.

When you come to install a solar system, unless you decide to do it yourself, the company you choose to perform an installation will provide the panels for you, and will advise you on your options.

A 4 kW solar panel system will cost you between $10,000 and $11,500 to install. If you want to up the juice a little bit, a 5 kW system will cost between $12,500 and $14,000 to install. Don’t forget, it’s not just the panels you are buying – there’s the wiring into your home electricity system as well, plus the cost of the installation itself .

You can find out more about the cost of a solar panel system here. You can also choose to finance the residential energy system, and go solar with zero down payment via solar leasing or Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), which is another great way to start save without having to pay for the system in full upfront.

Typically, as soon as you have your system up and running, you will receive tax breaks in line with about 30 percent of the cost of your installation. Most solar panel systems pay for themselves within 8 to 10 years of installation via lower utility bills and tax breaks.

Don’t forget, it’s not just the financial cost you have to take into consideration – there’s the continual cost in terms of damage to the environment if you continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels.

Go solar and you’ll be saving the planet, and your wallet

See how much your home Solar Power System cost now Get a Quote

Spring Attendee Homepage – Atlanta Home Show – Georgia s Largest Home Show #home #show #booth #award #winners,exhibitor #reservations,consumer #show #marketing,consumer #show,air #conditioning,air #purification,antiques,appliance,architect,art,atlanta,atlanta #home #show,attic,awning,balusters,bath,bathroom,bed,berber,billiards,birdfeeder,blinds,builder,building #product,bushes,cabinets,canopies,carpet,carpeting,cedar #shingles,cement,central #vacuum,chimney,cleaning #product,clock,closet #organization,closet #storage,closets,concrete,concrete #resurfacing,concrete #staining,construction,construction,contractor,convention,cooktop,cookware,countertop,custom #cabinets,cutlery,deck,design,design,dishwasher,door,door #handles,drain,drywall,elevator,elliptical,energy #saving,event,exhibit,exhibition,exhibitor,expo,fall,faucet,fence,fencing,financial #service,fireplace,fitness #equipment,fixture,flag,flag #pole,floor #care #product,flooring,flowers,foundation,furnace,furniture,garage,garage #door,garden,garden #and #patio #show,garden #tools,gas #logs,gazebo,georgia,glass #tinting,glasswork,granite,grass,greenhouse,grill,grout,gutters,hardware,heated #floor,heating,home,home #and #garden #show,home #builder,home #entertainment,home #improvement,home #inspection,home #office,home #repair,home #security,home #show,homebuyer,homebuying,hot #designs,hot #tub,insulating #windows,insulation,interior #decorating,interior #design,kitchen,knob,ladder,land,landscape,landscaping,landscaping,lawn,lawn #ornament,leaded #glass,lighting,liquid #vinyl,lock,log #home,lumber,mailbox,mantel,marble,mattress,microwave,millwork,mirror,natural #gas,new #product,organ,outdoor #kitchen,oven,paint,paint,painting,patio,patio,patio #enclosure,patio #furniture,pavement,paving,pest #control,piano,picture #frame,pine #floor,plant,plants,playground #equipment,plumbing,pond,pool,project,refridgerator,remodeling,renovation,resurfacing,retractable #screen,rocks,roof,roofing,room,rv,sauna,security #system,seminar,shelf,shelving,shingles,shower,shows,shrub,shutters,siding,sink,skylight,solar #energy,solar #technology,spa,sprayfoam,spring,stained #glass,staircase,stairs,stone,stone #product,storage,stove,sunroom,technology,termite #bait,tile,toilet,tool,tram #system,travel,treadmill,tree,tree,tub,utility #building,vacuums,vinyl #siding,wall,wall #covering,water #feature,water #filtration #system,water #garden,water #heater,waterfall,waterproofing,window,window #treatment,windows,wood,woodworking


The 39th Annual Spring Atlanta Home Show – March 24-26, 2017 – Cobb Galleria Centre

The largest Home Show in Georgia! Hundreds of participating companies! For THREE days only March 24-26, the Cobb Galleria transforms into a one-stop-shop for all your home improvement needs! For 39 years the Spring Atlanta Home Show has been improving home lifestyles and adding value to your largest single investment, your home. We’re proud of our ability to produce a family friendly environment and welcome you to our home.

Experience exciting and interactive sessions that can inspire you in your yard, with your decor and save you a great deal of time and money on your next remodeling job. » Click here to read more.

This year’s grand prize is a 7 LED fixture outdoor lighting package provided by Outdoor Lighting Perspectives of Atlanta. No purchase necessary – read more for all the details. » Click here to read more.

Georgia Landscape presents the Red Hare Backyard Beer Garden! Come learn about landscape design, services and products ranging from grass to fire, flowers to water, patios to recreation areas. You can chat with area experts about local landscape and options for every type of backyard. This is an interactive, educational area designed to give you the information you need to turn your backyard into an outdoor living area to enjoy for years! If all that were not enough, for a $5 donation to Hope Atlanta – the programs of Travelers Aid you can taste your way through this feature. Marietta’s own Red Hare Brewing Company will have SIX of their handcrafted brews available for your approval! Cabot Creamery will also have a sampling of cheeses. So bring your friends, enjoy some great beer and help a worthy cause! » Click here to read more.

Thanks to PMC Building Materials, members of the home improvement trade receive FREE admission to the show on Friday March 24! » Click here to read more.

Cleaning Solar Panels Often Not Worth the Cost, Engineers at UC San Diego Find #san #diego #solar #company


Cleaning Solar Panels Often Not Worth the Cost, Engineers at UC San Diego Find

Felipe Mejia. Photos by Erik Jepsen/UC San Diego Publications

Don’t hire someone to wash your dirty solar panels. That’s the conclusion of a study recently conducted by a team of engineers at the University of California, San Diego. Their findings were published in the July 25 online issue of Solar Energy.

Researchers found panels that hadn’t been cleaned, or rained on, for 145 days during a summer drought in California, lost only 7.4 percent of their efficiency. Overall, for a typical residential solar system of 5 kilowatts, washing panels halfway through the summer would translate into a mere $20 gain in electricity production until the summer drought ends—in about 2 ½ months. For larger commercial rooftop systems, the financial losses are bigger but still rarely enough to warrant the cost of washing the panels. On average, panels lost a little less than 0.05 percent of their overall efficiency per day.

“You definitely wouldn’t get your money back after hiring someone to wash your rooftop panels,” said Jan Kleissl, the principal investigator on the study and a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at UC San Diego.

He cautions that the study is focused on smaller systems. For very large installations, economies of scale may mean that washing panels is worth it.

The researchers analyzed data from the California Solar Initiative showing solar panel output at 186 residential and commercial sites from the San Francisco Bay Area to the United States-Mexico border for the year 2010. They compared output after more than 0.1 inches of rain fell on the panels with output during the 145-day summer drought California experienced that year. The panels would have been cleaned by rain but would have remained dirty during the drought, researchers reasoned.

“Dust on PV panels does make a difference but it’s not a big enough factor in California to warrant cleaning,” said Felipe Mejia, the first author on the study and a graduate student in environmental engineering in Kleissl’s research group at the Jacobs School of Engineering at UC San Diego.

The survey’s findings are applicable more widely, Kleissl said. Pollution and dust levels in California are fairly representative of the rest of the United States—and possibly higher, he explained. If anything, other areas of the country get more rain, resulting in cleaner panels and even smaller losses.

“Of course, there are exceptional events, like dust storms in Arizona,” Kleissl said.

Researchers believe that this is the largest survey quantifying losses of electricity output due to dirty solar panels conducted so far. Typically, particulate matter from air pollution, agriculture, construction and traffic accumulates on the panels, as well as pollen and sea salt.

Researchers also found that solar panels mounted at an angle of less than five degrees caused bigger losses in efficiency. That’s because dirt slips off panels that are installed at a steeper angle. Engineers also didn’t find any statistically significant differences between different regions of the state for output during the drought period, although sites in the Los Angeles basin and the Central Valley had dirtier panels.

But solar panels heavily soiled with bird droppings should be cleaned. That’s because the droppings essentially block all sunlight and will not be washed away when it rains. Engineers also found that at a few sites, photovoltaic panels were dirty enough to warrant cleaning due to very specific and localized circumstances. For example, being directly next to and downwind of a highway, factory or agricultural field may generate enough dirt to warrant cleaning.

Sites in the survey were part of the California Solar Initiative, a state-funded rebate program for customers of Pacific Gas and Electric, Southern California Edison and San Diego Gas and Electric. The California Public Utilities Commission RD D program also funded the research.

Next steps in the research would be looking more closely at the sites that did warrant cleaning and determine what caused the panels to get so dirty. Finally, researchers could add collectors at specific sites to determine what kind of dirt accumulates on the solar panels; whether special materials could keep dirt from accumulating; and whether special, less costly washing systems would do a better job at removing dirt from the panels.


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